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Values of 2 x For a list of rational numbers approximating 2
x 1.4 1.41 1.414 1.4142 1.41421 1.414213
2 x 2.639 2.65737 2.66475 2.665119 2.665138 2.665143

Bacterial growth

Suppose a particular population of bacteria is known to double in size every 4 hours. If a culture starts with 1000 bacteria, the number of bacteria after 4 hours is n ( 4 ) = 1000 · 2 . The number of bacteria after 8 hours is n ( 8 ) = n ( 4 ) · 2 = 1000 · 2 2 . In general, the number of bacteria after 4 m hours is n ( 4 m ) = 1000 · 2 m . Letting t = 4 m , we see that the number of bacteria after t hours is n ( t ) = 1000 · 2 t / 4 . Find the number of bacteria after 6 hours, 10 hours, and 24 hours.

The number of bacteria after 6 hours is given by n ( 6 ) = 1000 · 2 6 / 4 2828 bacteria. The number of bacteria after 10 hours is given by n ( 10 ) = 1000 · 2 10 / 4 5657 bacteria. The number of bacteria after 24 hours is given by n ( 24 ) = 1000 · 2 6 = 64,000 bacteria.

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Given the exponential function f ( x ) = 100 · 3 x / 2 , evaluate f ( 4 ) and f ( 10 ) .

f ( 4 ) = 900 ; f ( 10 ) = 24 , 300 .

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Go to World Population Balance for another example of exponential population growth.

Graphing exponential functions

For any base b > 0 , b 1 , the exponential function f ( x ) = b x is defined for all real numbers x and b x > 0 . Therefore, the domain of f ( x ) = b x is ( , ) and the range is ( 0 , ) . To graph b x , we note that for b > 1 , b x is increasing on ( , ) and b x as x , whereas b x 0 as x . On the other hand, if 0 < b < 1 , f ( x ) = b x is decreasing on ( , ) and b x 0 as x whereas b x as x ( [link] ).

An image of a graph. The x axis runs from -3 to 3 and the y axis runs from 0 to 4. The graph is of four functions. The first function is “f(x) = 2 to the power of x”, an increasing curved function, which starts slightly above the x axis and begins increasing. The second function is “f(x) = 4 to the power of x”, an increasing curved function, which starts slightly above the x axis and begins increasing rapidly, more rapidly than the first function. The third function is “f(x) = (1/2) to the power of x”, a decreasing curved function with decreases until it gets close to the x axis without touching it. The third function is “f(x) = (1/4) to the power of x”, a decreasing curved function with decreases until it gets close to the x axis without touching it. It decrases at a faster rate than the third function.
If b > 1 , then b x is increasing on ( , ) . If 0 < b < 1 , then b x is decreasing on ( , ) .

Visit this site for more exploration of the graphs of exponential functions.

Note that exponential functions satisfy the general laws of exponents. To remind you of these laws, we state them as rules.

Rule: laws of exponents

For any constants a > 0 , b > 0 , and for all x and y ,

  1. b x · b y = b x + y
  2. b x b y = b x y
  3. ( b x ) y = b x y
  4. ( a b ) x = a x b x
  5. a x b x = ( a b ) x

Using the laws of exponents

Use the laws of exponents to simplify each of the following expressions.

  1. ( 2 x 2 / 3 ) 3 ( 4 x −1 / 3 ) 2
  2. ( x 3 y −1 ) 2 ( x y 2 ) −2
  1. We can simplify as follows:
    ( 2 x 2 / 3 ) 3 ( 4 x −1 / 3 ) 2 = 2 3 ( x 2 / 3 ) 3 4 2 ( x −1 / 3 ) 2 = 8 x 2 16 x −2 / 3 = x 2 x 2 / 3 2 = x 8 / 3 2 .
  2. We can simplify as follows:
    ( x 3 y −1 ) 2 ( x y 2 ) −2 = ( x 3 ) 2 ( y −1 ) 2 x −2 ( y 2 ) −2 = x 6 y −2 x −2 y −4 = x 6 x 2 y −2 y 4 = x 8 y 2 .
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Use the laws of exponents to simplify ( 6 x −3 y 2 ) / ( 12 x −4 y 5 ) .

x / ( 2 y 3 )

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The number e

A special type of exponential function appears frequently in real-world applications. To describe it, consider the following example of exponential growth, which arises from compounding interest in a savings account. Suppose a person invests P dollars in a savings account with an annual interest rate r , compounded annually. The amount of money after 1 year is

A ( 1 ) = P + r P = P ( 1 + r ) .

The amount of money after 2 years is

A ( 2 ) = A ( 1 ) + r A ( 1 ) = P ( 1 + r ) + r P ( 1 + r ) = P ( 1 + r ) 2 .

More generally, the amount after t years is

A ( t ) = P ( 1 + r ) t .

If the money is compounded 2 times per year, the amount of money after half a year is

A ( 1 2 ) = P + ( r 2 ) P = P ( 1 + ( r 2 ) ) .

The amount of money after 1 year is

A ( 1 ) = A ( 1 2 ) + ( r 2 ) A ( 1 2 ) = P ( 1 + r 2 ) + r 2 ( P ( 1 + r 2 ) ) = P ( 1 + r 2 ) 2 .

After t years, the amount of money in the account is

A ( t ) = P ( 1 + r 2 ) 2 t .

More generally, if the money is compounded n times per year, the amount of money in the account after t years is given by the function

Questions & Answers

why n does not equal -1
K.kupar Reply
ask a complete question if you want a complete answer.
Andrew
I agree with Andrew
Bg
f (x) = a is a function. It's a constant function.
Darnell Reply
proof the formula integration of udv=uv-integration of vdu.?
Bg Reply
Find derivative (2x^3+6xy-4y^2)^2
Rasheed Reply
no x=2 is not a function, as there is nothing that's changing.
Vivek Reply
are you sure sir? please make it sure and reply please. thanks a lot sir I'm grateful.
The
i mean can we replace the roles of x and y and call x=2 as function
The
if x =y and x = 800 what is y
Joys Reply
y=800
Gift
800
Bg
how do u factor the numerator?
Drew Reply
Nonsense, you factor numbers
Antonio
You can factorize the numerator of an expression. What's the problem there? here's an example. f(x)=((x^2)-(y^2))/2 Then numerator is x squared minus y squared. It's factorized as (x+y)(x-y). so the overall function becomes : ((x+y)(x-y))/2
The
The problem is the question, is not a problem where it is, but what it is
Antonio
I think you should first know the basics man: PS
Vishal
Yes, what factorization is
Antonio
Antonio bro is x=2 a function?
The
Yes, and no.... Its a function if for every x, y=2.... If not is a single value constant
Antonio
you could define it as a constant function if you wanted where a function of "y" defines x f(y) = 2 no real use to doing that though
zach
Why y, if domain its usually defined as x, bro, so you creates confusion
Antonio
Its f(x) =y=2 for every x
Antonio
Yes but he said could you put x = 2 as a function you put y = 2 as a function
zach
F(y) in this case is not a function since for every value of y you have not a single point but many ones, so there is not f(y)
Antonio
x = 2 defined as a function of f(y) = 2 says for every y x will equal 2 this silly creates a vertical line and is equivalent to saying x = 2 just in a function notation as the user above asked. you put f(x) = 2 this means for every x y is 2 this creates a horizontal line and is not equivalent
zach
The said x=2 and that 2 is y
Antonio
that 2 is not y, y is a variable 2 is a constant
zach
So 2 is defined as f(x) =2
Antonio
No y its constant =2
Antonio
what variable does that function define
zach
the function f(x) =2 takes every input of x within it's domain and gives 2 if for instance f:x -> y then for every x, y =2 giving a horizontal line this is NOT equivalent to the expression x = 2
zach
Yes true, y=2 its a constant, so a line parallel to y axix as function of y
Antonio
Sorry x=2
Antonio
And you are right, but os not a function of x, its a function of y
Antonio
As function of x is meaningless, is not a finction
Antonio
yeah you mean what I said in my first post, smh
zach
I mean (0xY) +x = 2 so y can be as you want, the result its 2 every time
Antonio
OK you can call this "function" on a set {2}, but its a single value function, a constant
Antonio
well as long as you got there eventually
zach
volume between cone z=√(x^2+y^2) and plane z=2
Kranthi Reply
answer please?
Fatima
It's an integral easy
Antonio
V=1/3 h π (R^2+r2+ r*R(
Antonio
How do we find the horizontal asymptote of a function using limits?
Lerato Reply
Easy lim f(x) x-->~ =c
Antonio
solutions for combining functions
Amna Reply
what is a function? f(x)
Jeremy Reply
one that is one to one, one that passes the vertical line test
Andrew
It's a law f() that to every point (x) on the Domain gives a single point in the codomain f(x)=y
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The
restate the problem. and I will look. ty
jon Reply
is x=2 a function?
The
What is limit
MaHeSh Reply
it's the value a function will take while approaching a particular value
Dan
don ger it
Jeremy
what is a limit?
Dlamini
it is the value the function approaches as the input approaches that value.
Andrew
Thanx
Dlamini
Its' complex a limit It's a metrical and topological natural question... approaching means nothing in math
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The
3y^2*y' + 2xy^3 + 3y^2y'x^2 = 0 sub in x = 2, and y = 1, isolate y'
Andrew Reply
what is implicit of y³+x²y³=5 at (2,1)
Estelita Reply
tel mi about a function. what is it?
Jeremy
A function it's a law, that for each value in the domaon associate a single one in the codomain
Antonio
function is a something which another thing depends upon to take place. Example A son depends on his father. meaning here is the father is function of the son. let the father be y and the son be x. the we say F(X)=Y.
Bg
yes the son on his father
pascal
a function is equivalent to a machine. this machine makes x to create y. thus, y is dependent upon x to be produced. note x is an independent variable
moe
x or y those not matter is just to represent.
Bg
Practice Key Terms 7

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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