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Managers must strive to identify the best applicants at the lowest cost. Companies have a variety of processes available to screen potential employees, so managers must determine which system will generate the most accurate results. The methods of selection vary both in levels of effectiveness and in cost of application. In addition to biographical information, companies can conduct personal interviews, perform background checks, or request testing. Because of the costs associated with these measures, companies try to narrow down the number of applicants in each round of hiring. In some countries, such as the United States, the selection procedures are subject to Equal Employment Opportunity guidelines (Recruitment). Therefore, the companies also need to ensure that the process is accurate, with a high level of validity, reliable and related to critical aspects of the job. Proactively taking these measures will help companies avoid litigation related to discrimination in the selection process.


As mentioned, it is important to first define the skills and attributes necessary to succeed in the specified position, then develop a list of questions that directly relate to the job requirements. The best interviews follow a structured framework in which each applicant is asked the same questions and is scored with a consistent rating process. Having a common set of information about the applicants upon which to compare after all the interviews have been conducted allows hiring managers to avoid prejudices and all interviewees are ensured a fair chance (Smith G.). Many companies choose to use several rounds of screening with different interviewers to discover additional facets of the applicant’s attitude or skill as well as develop a more well rounded opinion of the applicant from diverse perspectives. Involving senior management in the interview process also acts as a signal to applicants about the company culture and value of each new hire. There are two common types of interviews: behavioral and situational.

Behavioral interview

In a behavioral interview, the interviewer asks the applicant to reflect on his or her past experiences (Janz, 1982). After deciding what skills are needed for the position, the interviewer will ask questions to find out if the candidate possesses these skills. The purpose of behavioral interviewing is to find links between the job’s requirement and how the applicant’s experience and past behaviors match those requirements. Examples of behavioral interview questions:

  • Describe a time when you were faced with a stressful situation. How did you handle the situation?
  • Give me an example of when you showed initiative and assumed a leadership role?

(Free Sample Behavioral Interview Questions).

Situational interview

A situational interview requires the applicant to explain how he or she would handle a series of hypothetical situations. Situational-based questions evaluate the applicant’s judgment, ability, and knowledge (Latham&Saari, 1984). Before administering this type of interview, it is a good idea for the hiring manager to consider possible responses and develop a scoring key for evaluation purposes. Examples of situational interview questions:

  • You and a colleague are working on a project together; however, your colleague fails to do his agreed portion of the work. What would you do?
  • A client approaches you and claims that she has not received a payment that supposedly had been sent five days ago from your office. She is very angry. What would you do?

(Creating Situational Interviews and Rating Scales)

Selection tests

When making a hiring decision, it is critical to understand the applicant’s personality style, values, and motivations (Smith G.). Technical aptitude is important, but attitude is often more important. The reality is that technical skills can be learned, but interpersonal work attitudes are usually more difficult to change (Schaefer). Behavioral assessments and personality profiles are a good way for hiring managers to learn how the individual will interact with their coworkers, customers, and supervisors (Smith G.). Tests such as the Myers Briggs and D.I.S.C Profile assessments are popular tools that provide an accurate analysis of an applicant’s attitudes and interpersonal skills; however, it is critical that the tests are administered, scored and interpreted by a licensed professional. Other selection tests used in hiring, may include cognitive , which measure general intelligence, work sample tests that demonstrate the applicant’s ability to perform specific job duties, and integrity tests , which measure honesty (Kulik, 2004).

Background checks

Background checks are a way for employers to verify the accuracy of information provided by applicants in resumes and applications. Information gathered in background checks may include employment history, education, credit reports, driving records, and criminal records. Employers must obtain written consent from the applicant before conducting a background check, and the information gathered in a background check should be relevant to the job.


Employers may choose to use just one or a combination of the screening methods to predict future job performance. It is important for companies to assess the effectiveness of their selective hiring process using metrics. This provides a benchmark for future performance as well as a means of evaluating the success of a particular method. Companies can continuously improve their selection practices to ensure a good fit for future employees that will successfully accomplish all that the job entails as well as fit into the organizational culture. If companies are not successful in their hiring practices, high turnover or low employee morale, decreased productivity will result. Research shows that the “degree of cultural fit and value congruence between job applicants and their organizations significantly predicts both subsequent turnover and job performance” (Pfeffer&Viega, Putting People First for Organizational Success, 1998). Thus, companies need to assess their hiring in terms of technical success as well as cultural fit. Evaluating the hiring process will help ensure continuing success because human capital is often a company’s most important asset.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Business fundamentals. OpenStax CNX. Oct 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11227/1.4
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