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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • List the structures that make up the respiratory system
  • Describe how the respiratory system processes oxygen and CO 2
  • Compare and contrast the functions of upper respiratory tract with the lower respiratory tract

The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing ( [link] ).

Major respiratory structures

This figure shows the upper half of the human body. The major organs in the respiratory system are labeled.
The major respiratory structures span the nasal cavity to the diaphragm.

Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone. The conducting zone    of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange. The gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone    .

Conducting zone

The major functions of the conducting zone are to provide a route for incoming and outgoing air, remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air, and warm and humidify the incoming air. Several structures within the conducting zone perform other functions as well. The epithelium of the nasal passages, for example, is essential to sensing odors, and the bronchial epithelium that lines the lungs can metabolize some airborne carcinogens.

The nose and its adjacent structures

The major entrance and exit for the respiratory system is through the nose. When discussing the nose, it is helpful to divide it into two major sections: the external nose, and the nasal cavity or internal nose.

The external nose    consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions ( [link] ). The root    is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows. The bridge    is the part of the nose that connects the root to the rest of the nose. The dorsum nasi    is the length of the nose. The apex    is the tip of the nose. On either side of the apex, the nostrils are formed by the alae (singular = ala). An ala    is a cartilaginous structure that forms the lateral side of each naris    (plural = nares), or nostril opening. The philtrum    is the concave surface that connects the apex of the nose to the upper lip.

Nose

This figure shows the human nose. The top left panel shows the front view, and the top right panel shows the side view. The bottom panel shows the cartilaginous components of the nose.
This illustration shows features of the external nose (top) and skeletal features of the nose (bottom).

Underneath the thin skin of the nose are its skeletal features (see [link] , lower illustration). While the root and bridge of the nose consist of bone, the protruding portion of the nose is composed of cartilage. As a result, when looking at a skull, the nose is missing. The nasal bone    is one of a pair of bones that lies under the root and bridge of the nose. The nasal bone articulates superiorly with the frontal bone and laterally with the maxillary bones. Septal cartilage is flexible hyaline cartilage connected to the nasal bone, forming the dorsum nasi. The alar cartilage    consists of the apex of the nose; it surrounds the naris.

Questions & Answers

sorry I cant see the full question
Jessica Reply
what was the question?
evelyna
what is spine as a bone marking?
John
similar to a crest but raised more
evelyna
pointed process
evelyna
slender
evelyna
pointed projection i meant
evelyna
what fills the hallow space in the middle of bones? thanks
John
marrow
evelyna
bone marrow
evelyna
hey you gotta read a book
evelyna
i just happen to take this bone chapter in my book last week so i remember
evelyna
yeah i should. how about the correct match of the number of tarsal, metatarsal and phalanges?
John
10, fingers and toes, u know this
Patrick
what is the difference between basal laminal and basal membrane
Nartey Reply
I think they r the same
Patrick
If one is missing the opsin which detects wavelengths of approximately 560 nm what color would they be unable to see?
Alicia Reply
how do I explain into details the epithelial tissue
Sir Reply
Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelialcell: squamous, columnar, and cub
DJ
thank you
Sir
explain how the intestinal irritation results in diarrhoea
Sir
what is cerebrospinal fluid
nitesha Reply
Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by the specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.
DJ
cerebrospinal fluid is the fluid present in the brain and spinal cord
olusoga
it is whitish in colour
olusoga
what are the function of the blood
Hannah Reply
to transport oxygen in hemoglobin and nutrients
Thembani
ok
Hannah
describe the pulmonary circulation
Hannah
Which of the following structures contains membranes with mucus glands and blood vessels to help humidify and warm air?
Sheika Reply
thoracic pump for blood, and lymphatic flow for mucus membranes .
Rugiatu
explanation shortly about organizaton of human body
Maulidi Reply
the human body is the entire structure of a human being.it is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems.they ensure homeostasis and viability of the human body
Chundu
which is the largest body organ?
Carine Reply
skin
Vinod
hello everyone what is blood carcinoma?
Khabat Reply
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Divya
okk
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Chundu
Many thanks for your cooperation
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Also please keep all the conversations in English language to be understandable for all users.
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Divya
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Chundu
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Akash
smallest basic unit of life
Adna Reply
cell
Divya
how does the cell work
Akash
cells in our body together with similar cells and form tissues in our body
Chundu
different kinds of sutures and their functions...
Andy
its cell
Kalka
what is Gross anatomy
susana
gross anatomy is the study of what you can observe of the human body without a microscope.
Jessica
what is smallest bone
Gulista
excuse me if you are questing us or testing our knowledge?
Divya
stapes
Chundu
susana ...gross anatomy this are body structures tht we can see with our naked eyes
Otilie
How to work heart
anjali
how many organs in the body doctor
supreme
cell
Vinod
five vital organ hote hain beta koi mushkil pocho bacho wale question m ni dhekta
DR
beta cell is the basic setrecture and function unit of the body
DR
define the cns Dr. Shahid plz
REEMA
reema... cns .. central nervous system is the one of the two major division of the nervosu system
DR
what are the types of vein
Godwin Reply
what is a bone ?
Amoako Reply
give examples of short bones
Amoako
patella
Adna
how is a bone formed under the endochondral process
Juliet Reply
what is the difference between anatomy and physiology
Dinyando Reply
anatomy is the study of human body . and physiology is the study of the brain
Maryiam

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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