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Emerging from the right ventricle at the base of the pulmonary trunk is the pulmonary semilunar valve or the right semilunar valve. The pulmonary valve is comprised of three small flaps of endothelium reinforced with connective tissue. When the ventricle relaxes, the pressure differential causes blood to flow back into the ventricle from the pulmonary trunk. This flow of blood fills the pocket-like flaps of the pulmonary valve, causing the valve to close and producing an audible sound ("Lub"). Unlike the atrioventricular valves, there are no papillary muscles or chordae tendineae associated with the pulmonary valve.

Located at the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle is the mitral valve    , also called the bicuspid valve    or the left atrioventricular valve    . Structurally, this valve consists of two cusps compared to the three cusps of the tricuspid valve. In a clinical setting, the valve is referred to as the mitral valve, rather than the bicuspid valve. The two cusps of the mitral valve are attached by chordae tendineae to two papillary muscles that project from the wall of the ventricle.

At the base of the aorta is the aortic semilunar valve, or the aortic valve    , which prevents backflow from the aorta. It normally is composed of three flaps. When the ventricle relaxes and blood attempts to flow back into the ventricle from the aorta, blood will fill the cusps of the valve, causing it to close and producing an audible sound ("dub/dup").

In [link] a , the two atrioventricular valves are open and the two semilunar valves are closed. This occurs when both atria and ventricles are relaxed and when the atria contract to pump blood into the ventricles. [link] b shows a frontal view. Although only the left side of the heart is illustrated, the process is virtually identical on the right.

Blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle

The left panel of this figure shows the anterior view of the heart with the different valves, and the right panel of this figure shows the location of the mitral valve in the open position in the heart.
(a) A transverse section through the heart illustrates the four heart valves. The two atrioventricular valves are open; the two semilunar valves are closed. The atria and vessels have been removed. (b) A frontal section through the heart illustrates blood flow through the mitral valve. When the mitral valve is open, it allows blood to move from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The aortic semilunar valve is closed to prevent backflow of blood from the aorta to the left ventricle.

[link] a shows the atrioventricular valves closed while the two semilunar valves are open. This occurs when the ventricles contract to eject blood into the pulmonary trunk and aorta. Closure of the two atrioventricular valves prevents blood from being forced back into the atria. This stage can be seen from a frontal view in [link] b .

Blood flow from the left ventricle into the great vessels

The left panel of this figure shows the anterior view of the heart with the different valves, and the right panel of this figure shows the location of the mitral valve in the closed position in the heart.
(a) A transverse section through the heart illustrates the four heart valves during ventricular contraction. The two atrioventricular valves are closed, but the two semilunar valves are open. The atria and vessels have been removed. (b) A frontal view shows the closed mitral (bicuspid) valve that prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium. The aortic semilunar valve is open to allow blood to be ejected into the aorta.

Questions & Answers

information for blood vessels
Sumit Reply
helps pump blood through body
scott
arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins return it to the heart
Reverian
veins have thinner outer walls because blood pressure in them is very low compared to arteries with thicker outer walls to withstand the higher blood pressure.
Oliver
cell, tissue, organ, organism, organ system,
Gheida Reply
please what are the characteristics of a good respiratory system?
Salomon Reply
thin wall ,a moist inner surface ,a huge combined surface area and a rich blood supply.
Nchimunya
Help me am confused what is the cell membrane as a partially permeable membrane
Janelle Reply
it is the ability of a molecules to cross a cell membrane depending on their both size and chemical properties.
Andrews
Based on my previous understanding of biological systems, a cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane made up of a phospholipids bi-layer. The polar head consisting of phosphate and the hydrophobic end made up of lipids.
Abayomi
Smallest bone of rabbit is
Sahrukh Reply
difference between catebolism and anebolism
Anthvanath Reply
identify the causes of infertility in human beings
Rodrick Reply
Describe how a healthy pregnancy could be maintained
Rodrick
Huaman largest bone
Sahrukh
How I can test DNY
Salamin Reply
Samllest bone
Sahrukh
How can I determine my child
AlfredOfficial Reply
by DNA tests
lasford
thanks
AlfredOfficial
How to test
Salamin
How many bones of 1 year childrean
R.k Reply
208
Rani
A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults
Manali
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R.k
A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults h
Manali
I ask you about beby bones
R.k
i cann't say about 1 year baby's bones bt on birth baby has 300 bones
Manali
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R.k
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Manali
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Rani
it's 300 bones because it a baby
Jasper
babies have 300 bones in which it fuses to become 206 as an adult.
Andrews
it has 300 bones ,nchimunya
Nchimunya
figure of male reproduction
Rani Reply
front view of male reproductive system
Rani
front view of male reproductive system
Rani
what is Actin? I don't understand this definition
Rhonda Reply
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. 
Lauren
difference between throat and lyrnx
Lone
what is the difference between a vaccine and a antiserum
Silver Reply
An antiserum contains antibodies already produced and is used to pass on immune responses. A vaccine contains a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies to create an immune response.
Nana
A vaccine a preparation of antigens for one (or more) diseases that is given to stimulate active immunity and protect against the disease (s). while an antiserum either neutralizes the "infection " or stimulates your immune system to attack an infection.
Oliver
what is deoxyribonucleic acid
Carlene Reply
A negatively charged molecule; polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus of a cell ... DNA.
Abayomi
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Asali
Hi
Janelle
hi
Oliver
hello
Rani
how are you doing?
Jasper
DNA is genetic material which is present in cell DNA is made up of nitrogen base,phosphate group and pentose sugar.
Manali
hi
Jasper
give a front view of male reproductive system
Rani
to maintain certain biological activities of cell
jeeni Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Human biology. OpenStax CNX. Dec 01, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11903/1.3
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