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A photo of a large container of green fluid, with a display in the background with the heading “From Field to Fleet”.
Renewable fuels were tested in Navy ships and aircraft at the first Naval Energy Forum. (credit: modification of work by John F. Williams, US Navy)

Mitochondrial genomics

Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA mutates at a rapid rate and is often used to study evolutionary relationships. Another feature that makes studying the mitochondrial genome interesting is that in most multicellular organisms, the mitochondrial DNA is passed on from the mother during the process of fertilization. For this reason, mitochondrial genomics is often used to trace genealogy.

Genomics in forensic analysis

Information and clues obtained from DNA samples found at crime scenes have been used as evidence in court cases, and genetic markers have been used in forensic analysis. Genomic analysis has also become useful in this field. In 2001, the first use of genomics in forensics was published. It was a collaborative effort between academic research institutions and the FBI to solve the mysterious cases of anthrax ( [link] ) that was transported by the US Postal Service. Anthrax bacteria were made into an infectious powder and mailed to news media and two U.S. Senators. The powder infected the administrative staff and postal workers who opened or handled the letters. Five people died, and 17 were sickened from the bacteria. Using microbial genomics, researchers determined that a specific strain of anthrax was used in all the mailings; eventually, the source was traced to a scientist at a national biodefense laboratory in Maryland.

A light microscope photo of the long rods of anthrax bacterium. Several lines of red spore dots can be seen as well.
Bacillus anthracis is the organism that causes anthrax. (credit: modification of work by CDC; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Genomics in agriculture

Genomics can reduce the trials and failures involved in scientific research to a certain extent, which could improve the quality and quantity of crop yields in agriculture ( [link] ). Linking traits to genes or gene signatures helps to improve crop breeding to generate hybrids with the most desirable qualities. Scientists use genomic data to identify desirable traits, and then transfer those traits to a different organism to create a new genetically modified organism, as described in the previous module. Scientists are discovering how genomics can improve the quality and quantity of agricultural production. For example, scientists could use desirable traits to create a useful product or enhance an existing product, such as making a drought-sensitive crop more tolerant of the dry season.

A photo of several purple plums and the leaves of the plum tree. One plum has been cut in half to expose the yellow flesh and small brown pit.
Transgenic agricultural plants can be made to resist disease. These transgenic plums are resistant to the plum pox virus. (credit: Scott Bauer, USDA ARS)

Proteomics

Proteins are the final products of genes that perform the function encoded by the gene. Proteins are composed of amino acids and play important roles in the cell. All enzymes (except ribozymes) are proteins and act as catalysts that affect the rate of reactions. Proteins are also regulatory molecules, and some are hormones. Transport proteins, such as hemoglobin, help transport oxygen to various organs. Antibodies that defend against foreign particles are also proteins. In the diseased state, protein function can be impaired because of changes at the genetic level or because of direct impact on a specific protein.

Questions & Answers

how genes are regulated
Ainjue Reply
what is storage of glycogen
Student Reply
glycogen is a protein content
Najeem
how many times breathing a day normally does a person have
Vernalyn Reply
100
Aadil
on average 18000 times a day when resting.
gagan
the -10 and -35 regions of prokaryotic promoters are called consensus sequences because
Michelle Reply
Oogenesis is the process that produces sperm
Kelly Reply
what is the nephrons
Kalim Reply
what is the DNA and how to work
Kalim
nephrons are functional units of kidney.
gagan
a picture of a diktiosoom
Zandri Reply
How so you understand Darwin's theory when this is not what you believe?
Jessica Reply
can someone describe the original theories of evolution generated by darwin and wallace
Liza Reply
Recombinant DNA is any DNA that
Cat Reply
which is organille of cytoplasm called protien factory
FAIQUE Reply
What is sex
Devendra Reply
what is NADP
Mac Reply
Population genetics is the study of:
tehya Reply
sponge cells are capable of
Devang Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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