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Types of synovial joints

Synovial joints are further classified into six different categories on the basis of the shape and structure of the joint. The shape of the joint affects the type of movement permitted by the joint ( [link] ). These joints can be described as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket joints.

 Illustration shows joints of the body. The neck is a pivot joint that allows rotation. The hip is a ball-and-socket joint that allows a swiveling movement. The elbow is a hinge joint that allows movement in one direction. The wrist has a saddle joint to allow back-and forth-movement, and a condyloid joint to allow up-and-down movement. The tarsals of the foot have a plane joint that allows back-and-forth movement.
Different types of joints allow different types of movement. Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket are all types of synovial joints.

Planar joints

Planar joints have bones with articulating surfaces that are flat or slightly curved faces. These joints allow for gliding movements, and so the joints are sometimes referred to as gliding joints. The range of motion is limited in these joints and does not involve rotation. Planar joints are found in the carpal bones in the hand and the tarsal bones of the foot, as well as between vertebrae ( [link] ).

Photo shows a human hand skeleton. The radius and ulna of the forearm connect to several small, knobby bones in the wrist called carpals. Carpals, in turn, connect to bones in the wrist.
The joints of the carpal bones in the wrist are examples of planar joints. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

Hinge joints

In hinge joints , the slightly rounded end of one bone fits into the slightly hollow end of the other bone. In this way, one bone moves while the other remains stationary, like the hinge of a door. The elbow is an example of a hinge joint. The knee is sometimes classified as a modified hinge joint ( [link] ).

Photo shows the skeleton of a human arm. The ulna of the lower arm fits in the groove of the humerus, forming the hinge-like elbow joint.
The elbow joint, where the radius articulates with the humerus, is an example of a hinge joint. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

Pivot joints

Pivot joints consist of the rounded end of one bone fitting into a ring formed by the other bone. This structure allows rotational movement, as the rounded bone moves around its own axis. An example of a pivot joint is the joint of the first and second vertebrae of the neck that allows the head to move back and forth ( [link] ). The joint of the wrist that allows the palm of the hand to be turned up and down is also a pivot joint.

Illustration shows a human skull twisting back and forth on the neck in a pivot-like motion.
The joint in the neck that allows the head to move back and forth is an example of a pivot joint.

Condyloid joints

Condyloid joints consist of an oval-shaped end of one bone fitting into a similarly oval-shaped hollow of another bone ( [link] ). This is also sometimes called an ellipsoidal joint. This type of joint allows angular movement along two axes, as seen in the joints of the wrist and fingers, which can move both side to side and up and down.

Illustration shows the metacarpophalangeal joint that joins the metacarpal of the hand to a finger.
The metacarpophalangeal joints in the finger are examples of condyloid joints. (credit: modification of work by Gray's Anatomy)

Saddle joints

Saddle joints are so named because the ends of each bone resemble a saddle, with concave and convex portions that fit together. Saddle joints allow angular movements similar to condyloid joints but with a greater range of motion. An example of a saddle joint is the thumb joint, which can move back and forth and up and down, but more freely than the wrist or fingers ( [link] ).

Photo shows the carpometacarpal joint that connects the metacarpal of the thumb to the trapezium of the wrist. Each bone is saddle-shaped at the end.
The carpometacarpal joints in the thumb are examples of saddle joints. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

Ball-and-socket joints

Ball-and-socket joints possess a rounded, ball-like end of one bone fitting into a cuplike socket of another bone. This organization allows the greatest range of motion, as all movement types are possible in all directions. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are the shoulder and hip joints ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

the properties of life
Clarinda Reply
response to the environment, reproduction, homeostasis, growth,energy processing etc.....
Pushpam
hello.
Daniela
hi
MacPeter
a complete virus particle known as
Darlington Reply
These are formed from identical protein subunitscalled capsomeres.
Pushpam
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Pushpam Reply
in eukaryotes ...protein channel name which transport protein ...
Pushpam Reply
in bacteria ...chromosomal dna duplicate structure called
Pushpam
what is a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell
Matilda Reply
There are two types of cells. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles (little organs within that cell). They do however carry genetic material but it's not maintained in the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are also one celled.
juanita
Prokaryotic cells are one celled (single celled).
juanita
Prokaryotic cells are Bacteria and Archea
juanita
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells are more complex. They are much bigger than Prokaryotic cells.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells are animals cells which also includes us.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells are also multicellular.
juanita
nice explaination
Amna
eukaryotic cells are individual cells .. but eukaryotes are multicellular organisms which consist of many different types of eukaryotic cells
Will
also eukaryotic cells have mitochondria. prokaryotic cells do not
Will
Good
John
in prokaryotes only ribosomes are present... in eukaryotes mitochondria ...glogi bodies ..epidermis .....prokaryotes one envelop but eukaryotes compartment envelop....envelop mean membrane bound organelles......
Pushpam
prokaryotic cell are cells dat have no true nuclei i.e no cell membrane while eukaryotic cell are cell dat have true nuclei i.e have cell membrane
Divine
we have 46 pair of somatic cell and 23 pair of chromosomes in our body, pls can someone explain it to me. pls
Matilda Reply
we have 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosome
Amna
thanks
Matilda
we have 23 pairs of chromosomes,22 pairs of somatic and one pair of sex chromosomes
Amna
23 chromosomes from dad & 23 chromosomes from mom 23 +23=46 total chromosomes
juanita
X & Y chromosomes are called sex cells, the very presence of a Y chromosome means the person is Male.
juanita
XX Female XY Male
juanita
If a Karyotype has more than 46 Chromosomes then nondisjunction occured. For example, having an extra chromosome 21 will cause Down Syndrome.
juanita
in mammal state the different vertebrae and their location in the body
Igbinigie Reply
what is a somatic cell
Senam Reply
somatic cells are body cells
juanita
somatic cell organised whole plant body part
Pushpam
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lilian Reply
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Dada Reply
The scientific study of life.
juanita
the study of life
Clarinda
the virus that causes mumps in humans is composed of a protein outer Shell containing a core of DNA
Daniel Reply
Basic science and applied science question about cancer
Joyce Reply
what are the importance of ATPs
Olatunji Reply
How can biology be studied from a microscopic approach to a global approach
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The large central opening in the poriferan body is called
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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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