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Molecular models show a DNA double helix that is packed in a chromosome in Part a, and two proteins are shown in Parts b and c.
Genes, which are carried on (a) chromosomes, are linearly organized instructions for making the RNA and protein molecules that are necessary for all of processes of life. The (b) interleukin-2 protein and (c) alpha-2u-globulin protein are just two examples of the array of different molecular structures that are encoded by genes. (credit “chromosome: National Human Genome Research Institute; credit “interleukin-2”: Ramin Herati/Created from PDB 1M47 and rendered with Pymol; credit “alpha-2u-globulin”: Darren Logan/rendered with AISMIG)

Since the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900, the definition of the gene has progressed from an abstract unit of heredity to a tangible molecular entity capable of replication, expression, and mutation ( [link] ). Genes are composed of DNA and are linearly arranged on chromosomes. Genes specify the sequences of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. In turn, proteins are responsible for orchestrating nearly every function of the cell. Both genes and the proteins they encode are absolutely essential to life as we know it.

Questions & Answers

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a stage in mitosis wherein in spindle fibers begin to shorten to pu the sister chromatids away from each other towards the opposite ends of the cell
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a stage in interphase where chromosome s are duplicated
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any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds which have large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
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what is DNA replication?
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separation of the DNA to produce new daughter cell. mostly in the form of meiosis
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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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