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Everyday connection

Chesapeake bay

 Satellite image shows the Chesapeake Bay. Inset is a photo of a man holding a clump of oysters.
This (a) satellite image shows the Chesapeake Bay, an ecosystem affected by phosphate and nitrate runoff. A (b) member of the Army Corps of Engineers holds a clump of oysters being used as a part of the oyster restoration effort in the bay. (credit a: modification of work by NASA/MODIS; credit b: modification of work by U.S. Army)

The Chesapeake Bay has long been valued as one of the most scenic areas on Earth; it is now in distress and is recognized as a declining ecosystem. In the 1970s, the Chesapeake Bay was one of the first ecosystems to have identified dead zones, which continue to kill many fish and bottom-dwelling species, such as clams, oysters, and worms. Several species have declined in the Chesapeake Bay due to surface water runoff containing excess nutrients from artificial fertilizer used on land. The source of the fertilizers (with high nitrogen and phosphate content) is not limited to agricultural practices. There are many nearby urban areas and more than 150 rivers and streams empty into the bay that are carrying fertilizer runoff from lawns and gardens. Thus, the decline of the Chesapeake Bay is a complex issue and requires the cooperation of industry, agriculture, and everyday homeowners.

Of particular interest to conservationists is the oyster population; it is estimated that more than 200,000 acres of oyster reefs existed in the bay in the 1700s, but that number has now declined to only 36,000 acres. Oyster harvesting was once a major industry for Chesapeake Bay, but it declined 88 percent between 1982 and 2007. This decline was due not only to fertilizer runoff and dead zones but also to overharvesting. Oysters require a certain minimum population density because they must be in close proximity to reproduce. Human activity has altered the oyster population and locations, greatly disrupting the ecosystem.

The restoration of the oyster population in the Chesapeake Bay has been ongoing for several years with mixed success. Not only do many people find oysters good to eat, but they also clean up the bay. Oysters are filter feeders, and as they eat, they clean the water around them. In the 1700s, it was estimated that it took only a few days for the oyster population to filter the entire volume of the bay. Today, with changed water conditions, it is estimated that the present population would take nearly a year to do the same job.

Restoration efforts have been ongoing for several years by non-profit organizations, such as the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. The restoration goal is to find a way to increase population density so the oysters can reproduce more efficiently. Many disease-resistant varieties (developed at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science for the College of William and Mary) are now available and have been used in the construction of experimental oyster reefs. Efforts to clean and restore the bay by Virginia and Delaware have been hampered because much of the pollution entering the bay comes from other states, which stresses the need for inter-state cooperation to gain successful restoration.

The new, hearty oyster strains have also spawned a new and economically viable industry—oyster aquaculture—which not only supplies oysters for food and profit, but also has the added benefit of cleaning the bay.

Questions & Answers

what is abiotic and biotic factors?
Hira Reply
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Kameishia Reply
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Shivam Reply
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Shivam
meeting point of two chromatids
Cffrrcvccgg
Explain the function of nematocysts in cnidarians?
Israel Reply
The nemotocyst is used by Cnidarians (hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones) to sting their prey and any threatening enemy.
Lee
photosynthesis in plants is an example of what ? (a) excretion (b) irritability (c) nutrition (d) reproduction
Lee Reply
If a Hox 13 gene in a mouse was replaced with a Hox 1 gene, how might this alter animal development?
Israel Reply
Which of the following organisms is most likely to be a diploblast?
Israel
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Maria Reply
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dayana Reply
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Emmanuel Reply
matter is anything that has mass and can occupied space
Alice
weight
Alice
example of matter
Oyekemi
You serves as an example of matter Because matter is anything that has mass and occupy space e.g man and every other things that exist on earth.. So think of every other things around you ...
Biola
and you too
Oyekemi
We generally
Biola
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Oyekemi
how the kidney functions as osmoregulatory organ
Sam Reply
That true
Banda
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Ibrahim Reply
Simple term of science
Palesa Reply
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gopal
it's means what do u know about biology?
Phathu
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Melysa
the action of making a person immune to infections ,for immunisation
Kalia
what is the biology? what do you know about biology
Phathu Reply
biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.
Julia
The study of all aspects of life. The study of all living organisms (such as animal cells and plant cells) in greater detail (their structure and how they function). It's a very broad science.
juanita
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Bhaskar Reply
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Bhaskar
pathogens are a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
Lee
transistion metals....
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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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