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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the functions proteins perform in the cell and in tissues
  • Discuss the relationship between amino acids and proteins
  • Explain the four levels of protein organization
  • Describe the ways in which protein shape and function are linked

Proteins are one of the most abundant organic molecules in living systems and have the most diverse range of functions of all macromolecules. Proteins may be structural, regulatory, contractile, or protective; they may serve in transport, storage, or membranes; or they may be toxins or enzymes. Each cell in a living system may contain thousands of proteins, each with a unique function. Their structures, like their functions, vary greatly. They are all, however, polymers of amino acids, arranged in a linear sequence.

Types and functions of proteins

Enzymes , which are produced by living cells, are catalysts in biochemical reactions (like digestion) and are usually complex or conjugated proteins. Each enzyme is specific for the substrate (a reactant that binds to an enzyme) it acts on. The enzyme may help in breakdown, rearrangement, or synthesis reactions. Enzymes that break down their substrates are called catabolic enzymes, enzymes that build more complex molecules from their substrates are called anabolic enzymes, and enzymes that affect the rate of reaction are called catalytic enzymes. It should be noted that all enzymes increase the rate of reaction and, therefore, are considered to be organic catalysts. An example of an enzyme is salivary amylase, which hydrolyzes its substrate amylose, a component of starch.

Hormones are chemical-signaling molecules, usually small proteins or steroids, secreted by endocrine cells that act to control or regulate specific physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction. For example, insulin is a protein hormone that helps to regulate the blood glucose level. The primary types and functions of proteins are listed in [link] .

Protein Types and Functions
Type Examples Functions
Digestive Enzymes Amylase, lipase, pepsin, trypsin Help in digestion of food by catabolizing nutrients into monomeric units
Transport Hemoglobin, albumin Carry substances in the blood or lymph throughout the body
Structural Actin, tubulin, keratin Construct different structures, like the cytoskeleton
Hormones Insulin, thyroxine Coordinate the activity of different body systems
Defense Immunoglobulins Protect the body from foreign pathogens
Contractile Actin, myosin Effect muscle contraction
Storage Legume storage proteins, egg white (albumin) Provide nourishment in early development of the embryo and the seedling

Proteins have different shapes and molecular weights; some proteins are globular in shape whereas others are fibrous in nature. For example, hemoglobin is a globular protein, but collagen, found in our skin, is a fibrous protein. Protein shape is critical to its function, and this shape is maintained by many different types of chemical bonds. Changes in temperature, pH, and exposure to chemicals may lead to permanent changes in the shape of the protein, leading to loss of function, known as denaturation    . All proteins are made up of different arrangements of the same 20 types of amino acids.

Questions & Answers

there is no more other chapter
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a stage in mitosis wherein in spindle fibers begin to shorten to pu the sister chromatids away from each other towards the opposite ends of the cell
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a stage in interphase where chromosome s are duplicated
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Name two secretions of Golgi apparatus
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surya
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Faith Reply
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any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds which have large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
Anirban
what is DNA replication?
Anirban Reply
separation of the DNA to produce new daughter cell. mostly in the form of meiosis
Faith
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Daniel Reply
what are the types of tissues and there functions
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it is the process by which plants produce their fo
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what are the substrates of this process
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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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