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Talcott, R. “How the Solar System Came to Be.” Astronomy (November 2012): 24. On the formation period of the Sun and the planets.

Young, E. “Cloudy with a Chance of Stars.” Scientific American (February 2010): 34. On how clouds of interstellar matter turn into star systems.

Websites

Meteors and Meteorites

American Meteor Society: http://www.amsmeteors.org/. For serious observers.

British and Irish Meteorite Society: http://www.bimsociety.org/meteorites1.shtml.

Meteor Showers Online: http://meteorshowersonline.com/. By Gary Kronk.

Meteorite Information: http://www.meteorite-information.com/. A great collection of links for understanding and even collecting meteorites.

Meteorites from Mars: http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/. A listing and links from the Jet Propulsion Lab.

Meteors and Meteor Showers: http://www.astronomy.com/observing/observe-the-solar-system/2010/04/meteors-and-meteor-showers. From Astronomy magazine.

Meteors: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/celestial-objects-to-watch/meteors/. A collection of articles on meteor observing from Sky&Telescope magazine.

Nine Planets Meteorites and Meteors Page: http://nineplanets.org/meteorites.html.

Some Interesting Meteorite Falls of the Last Two Centuries: http://www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/meteorites-1.html.

Evolution of the Solar System and Protoplanetary Disks

Circumstellar Disk Learning Site: http://www.disksite.com/. By Dr. Paul Kalas.

Disk Detective Project: http://www.diskdetective.org/. The WISE mission is asking the public to help them find protoplanetary disks in their infrared data.

Videos

Meteors and Meteorites

Meteorites and Meteor-wrongs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQO335Y3zXo. Video with Dr. Randy Korotev of Washington U. in St. Louis (7:05).

Rare Meteorites from London’s Natural History Museum: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-Rsk-ywN44. A tour of the meteorite collection with curator Caroline Smith (18:22). Also see a short news piece about a martian meteorite: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1EMR2r53f2s (2:54).

What Is a Meteor Shower (and How to Watch Them): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xNmgvlwInCA. Top tips for watching meteor showers from the At-Bristol Science Center (3:18).

Evolution of the Solar System and Protoplanetary Disks

Origins of the Solar System: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/origins-solar-system.html. Video from Nova ScienceNow narrated by Neil deGrasse Tyson (13:02).

Where Do Planets Come From?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdIJUdZWlXo. Public talk by Anjali Tripathi in March 2016 in the Center for Astrophysics Observatory Nights Series (56:14).

Collaborative group activities

  1. Ever since the true (cosmic) origin of meteorites was understood, people have tried to make money selling them to museums and planetariums. More recently, a growing number of private collectors have been interested in purchasing meteorite fragments, and a network of dealers (some more reputable than others) has sprung up to meet this need. What does your group think of all this? Who should own a meteorite? The person on whose land it falls, the person who finds it, or the local, state, or federal government where it falls? What if it falls on public land? Should there be any limit to what people charge for meteorites? Or should all meteorites be the common property of humanity? (If you can, try to research what the law is now in your area. See, for example, http://www.space.com/18009-meteorite-collectors-public-lands-rules.html.)
  2. Your group has been formed to advise a very rich person who wants to buy some meteorites but is afraid of being cheated and sold some Earth rocks. How would you advise your client to make sure that the meteorites she buys are authentic?
  3. Your group is a committee set up to give advice to NASA about how to design satellites and telescopes in space to minimize the danger of meteor impacts. Remember that the heavier a satellite is, the harder (more expensive) it is to launch. What would you include in your recommendations?
  4. Discuss what you would do if you suddenly found that a small meteorite had crashed in or near your home. Whom would you call first, second, third? What would you do with the sample? (And would any damage to your home be covered by your insurance?)
  5. A friend of your group really wants to see a meteor shower. The group becomes a committee to assist her in fulfilling this desire. What time of year would be best? What equipment would you recommend she gets? What advice would you give her?
  6. Work with your group to find a table of the phases of the Moon for the next calendar year. Then look at the table of well-known meteor showers in this chapter and report on what phase the Moon will be in during each shower. (The brighter the Moon is in the night sky, the harder it is to see the faint flashes of meteors.)
  7. Thinking that all giant planets had to be far from their stars (because the ones in our solar system are) is an example of making theories without having enough data (or examples). Can your group make a list of other instances in science (and human relations) where we have made incorrect judgments without having explored enough examples?
  8. Have your group list and then discuss several ways in which the discovery of a diverse group of exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) has challenged our conventional view of the formation of planetary systems like our solar system.

Thought questions

What methods do scientists use to distinguish a meteorite from terrestrial material?

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Why do iron meteorites represent a much higher percentage of finds than of falls?

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Why is it more useful to classify meteorites according to whether they are primitive or differentiated rather than whether they are stones, irons, or stony-irons?

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Which meteorites are the most useful for defining the age of the solar system? Why?

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Suppose a new primitive meteorite is discovered (sometime after it falls in a field of soybeans) and analysis reveals that it contains a trace of amino acids, all of which show the same rotational symmetry (unlike the Murchison meteorite). What might you conclude from this finding?

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How do we know when the solar system formed? Usually we say that the solar system is 4.5 billion years old. To what does this age correspond?

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We have seen how Mars can support greater elevation differences than Earth or Venus. According to the same arguments, the Moon should have higher mountains than any of the other terrestrial planets, yet we know it does not. What is wrong with applying the same line of reasoning to the mountains on the Moon?

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Present theory suggests that giant planets cannot form without condensation of water ice, which becomes vapor at the high temperatures close to a star. So how can we explain the presence of jovian-sized exoplanets closer to their star than Mercury is to our Sun?

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Why are meteorites of primitive material considered more important than other meteorites? Why have most of them been found in Antarctica?

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Figuring for yourself

How long would material take to go around if the solar nebula in [link] became the size of Earth’s orbit?

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Consider the differentiated meteorites. We think the irons are from the cores, the stony-irons are from the interfaces between mantles and cores, and the stones are from the mantles of their differentiated parent bodies. If these parent bodies were like Earth, what fraction of the meteorites would you expect to consist of irons, stony-irons, and stones? Is this consistent with the observed numbers of each? (Hint: You will need to look up what percent of the volume of Earth is taken up by its core, mantle, and crust.)

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Estimate the maximum height of the mountains on a hypothetical planet similar to Earth but with twice the surface gravity of our planet.

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Questions & Answers

what do people do when sleeping
Olivia Reply
people when sleep they actually shutdown there conscious brain but the subconscious brain is it still on so that is the reason why you see dreams and suddenly wake up when you feel thirsty
Amritansh
really?
rizza
how to control your emotions/feelings over special someone?
rizza
what are quasars
Amritansh Reply
what is siphon
pankaj Reply
what is mama radiation
Pragiti Reply
I GUESS YOU ARE asking gamma radiation so it's nothing but a type of radiation of light which is at very high frequency and is very dangerous for human beings usually when there is a generation of photon inside the core of the sun it emits a large amount of gamma waves.
Amritansh
the time for planet formation must vary with the luminosity of the star? Disks must last much longer around a M-dwarft? please explain how planet formation varies as a function of star luminosity.
Jeffrey Reply
what do you mean by light year
Prabha
A lightyear is an astronomical distance of 5.9 trillion miles.
James
a light year is the speed of light times the total amount of seconds in a year. distance in physics is speed x time, so a light year refers to the total distance the light travels in a year
Levis
thanks for helping me
Prabha
Explain the formation of a black hole?
Prabha
a black hole is formed when a star dies . usually when a star dies it looses all of its nuclear energy but has its gravitational pull which then acts as the gravity of the black hole . a black hole absorb all the light therefore looks black . if you have any other question ask
Amritansh
what is atoms
Suman Reply
atoms are the smallest partiles that make the whole universe.For a measurement. if an atom were the size of a ball......The ball would be size of the Earth.
Sangeet
the smallest unit of an universe but it is not true the smallest thing in universe is quarks
Pragiti
The smallest thing in the universe is the arrogance of scientists who think they are never wrong.
Loren
You mean the greatest?
Cyclone
i believe so
daniel
see I GUESS the smallest indivisible particle in the universe ARE the glucons and quarks
Amritansh
do we are alone in universe
ninja Reply
no not all it is said that in our milky way galaxy there are more 100 thousand planets like earth
Amritansh
is the astroid belt shaped like a torus? or like Saturn's disc?
Abhishek Reply
torus
ninja
torus
Robert
can i know deep about black hole
Monisha Reply
yupp ask questions about whatever you wanna know in black hole?
Paras
where does it lead
Vanessa
how black holes are detected in deep space as we are unable to see them.
jawad
if black holes are hypothetical then how do they detect them?
Alvis
who said blackholes are hypothetical?
Ehan
They are detected by their gravitational pull...
Ehan
also we can detect them by X-rays as they emit hawking radiation as they 'shrink'
Levis
hawking radiations are not detected yet...
Ehan
nopes that's not how you detect black holes. Gravity curves space, and light bends around heavy objects. Black holes have very very very high mass. So light bends so much that it cannot pass. When the light of the stars behind suddenly vanishes. => black hole is present in between us and that star.
Abhishek
see I think we detect the black holes by their surrounding because yes they bend space and time but the gases around them become so light that they start emitting visible light which our sattalites catch and we find them
Amritansh
and yes black holes aren't hypothetical
Amritansh
to find astronomical units do you divide or multiply?
Bethany Reply
I think it depends what you're converting from. i.e. from km you divide
Fab
I tried that for question a in section 0.3 but the answer doesn't seem right
Bethany
make sure you're using consistent units m/m
Fab
i too had the same doubt
Monisha
hi dear
jawad
can you tell me what is ecliptic ?
jawad
the great circle formed by the intersection of the plane of the earth's orbit with the celestial sphere; 
Monisha
OK thanks
jawad
who is the father of Astronomy?
subhajit Reply
Me ;)
daniel
I think Galileo
Prabha
Copernicus, Nicolaus.....
Adam
which telescope is best for beginners ?
jawad
Do You Want Low Maintenance Or High Maintenance Optics? Do You Want To Look At Solar System Objects Or Deep Space Objects? Or May Be You Want To Split Doubles, Do You Live In A Big City Or Suburbs?
Adam
I want low maintenance. I want to see deep Space objects. I live in big light polluted city.
jawad
sir I have Nikon 16*50 binocular but now I want to buy a telescope.
jawad
i have got money that i earn with i am a doctor that working at st.louis jewish Centre.i am very helpful for people that they need help with.
Asali
What's Your Budget?
Adam
Deep Space Objects Are Gonna Hard To Come By In A Light Polluted City..... So Far I Would Recommend 8 To 10 Inch Schmidt Cassegrain Telescope, For Deep Space Objects You Need Light Gathering Power, Now A Decent Scope Like What I Just Described Is Gonna Run You About $800 To $1000 Dollars.....
Adam
And That's Just The OTA, Optical Tube Assembly..... Then We Gotta Talk Mount And Tripod, And For Good Stable And Steady Views We Need About Another $1000 Dollars For Mount And Tripod.....
Adam
my budget is almost 1000 dollars.
jawad
my budget is almost $1156.00 dollars each years
Asali
big diameter and lenth are good, i got my first telescope for $300 and it works real well for planets.
daniel
if you want to do amature astrophotography, what you can do is mount a webcam or your phone to your telescope and have a tracking mount attached so you can look for different deep space objects and take pictures. I have a couple I did using this method
Mark
A Big Dobsonian Might Be In Order, But That Scope Is Very High Maintenance..... But For $1000 Dollars, You Can Get A Real Nice Dobsonian And They Perform Excellent On Deep Space Objects, The Darker Your Observing Location Is The Better.....
Adam
guys this is my first day of i arrived in the u.s i need your help guys what does telescope means
Asali
so, a telescope is a thing you look through to see things far awY
Mark
A Tool Used To Observe The Sky.....
Adam
thank you guys for you help me i appreciate with that i will always thank you guys
Asali
what does physiognomys mean?
Asali
what happen if earth stop to rotate?
Sijan Reply
well first of all we wouldn't have day and night and it would get cold in the dark side humans and animals would have to get use to the darkness. plant would not he able to grow on the dark side either. Ad for the light side or "day" its the same thing but just...hot.
Ghost
and contestant datlight such could be harmful beacuase of the constant if rays
Ghost
Our gravitational field would collapse.
Hannah
Magnetic field sry. That means no shielding from cosmic rays.
Hannah
actually we would have day and night...but each day would last a year. We would also still have a magnetosphere unless the Earth's core also stopped rotating. Gravity would increase as we would lose any centripetal effect. We would only have one tide per 29 days as the moon orbits us.
Joe
we would still have gravity Hannah because we would still have mass!
Joe
pretty sure there would be no more rain or wind because any warm air and water vapour would just rise and fall above wherever it came from.
Joe
As we are rotating right now, if the earth suddenly stopped, objects that are not bound to the ground will get flung due east at very high speeds. It would be very catastrophic. That's the first thing that'll happen if such an event were to happen.
Cave
if we stop rotating then there will be drastic changes in our environment for example as Joe said earlier that we will have gravity as we have mass but the moon will start disappearing for some time and then appears for a sudden and also we will stop encountering different changes in temperature
Amritansh
what is comets?
Ido Reply
the bottom of the page of chapter 13 thinking ahead describe it
Chelsea
I also don't know but I think it is star
Sijan
A comet is composed of small rocks and dust particles cemented together by frozen gas and ice.
shiela
and when the ice and the cold stuff on a comet heats up, by the sun as it closes by, some matter escape and we see a tail.
Abhishek
when any asteroid from the Asteroid belt or from outside comes towards us and it actually come at a hi speed or rather very high speed so it form a tail behind the main centre of the comet and it is said that it actually revolves around the sun
Amritansh
I once watched a show discussing finding dark matter ON planet earth, deep down inside caverns where sound and light are absent. I seem to remember them also saying that the slightest of sound would "charge" the matter up. If the solar system is primarily dark matter, could we use sound to travel?
Jamie Reply
I thought the same thing. If space is a vacuum and sound does not travel in a vacuum, it would be difficult?
James
What exactly is dark matter?
Sharadhi
from what i gathered, dark matter is incredibly motionless atoms. Almost dormant, and they are easily disturbed? i am by NO MEANS an expert on any of this. just a curious mind... if sound doesnt travel in a vacuum, maybe the light then? disturb the matter with light and maybe 'swim' it?
Jamie
yes, the sound can be converted as an electrical impulse, which can be converted to light. and if we can detect this light at the receiving end then we can convert it back to sound but only if a material medium is present for the sound to travel to our ears.
Abhishek
what are whitehole a wormholes
gajanan Reply
holes
xBeex
***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_hole ***en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wormhole
xBeex
wormholes are those holes through which we can travel to past
ninja
in an theory of Black Hole it was said that black holes are the portal which you know pulls all the matter from the from the present universe and through a white hole or a warmer it gives out to an another universe but it is not really so that its true or not
Amritansh
how come people don't float all around the world
Olivia
why do black holes form
Olivia
black hole forms when a star dies actually what happens is that when a star die it releases all of its nuclear energy so the only thing that the star is left with is its gravitational pull so actually is that the star is left with the core which then becomes the Event Horizon of the black hole
Amritansh
cool but what happens when there is nothing left for the black hole to suck up
Olivia
yep it is a nice question C actually the quantity of anything in this universe is infinite so this case cannot happen but to answer your question I must say that to remove it's hunger the black hole Would Suck up itself
Amritansh

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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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