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If Europa really has a large ocean of liquid water under its ice, then it may be the only place in the solar system, other than Earth, with really large amounts of liquid water. Ganymede and Saturn’s moon Enceladus may have smaller amounts of liquid water under their surfaces. To remain liquid, this ocean must be warmed by heat escaping from the interior of Europa. Hot (or at least warm) springs might be active there, analogous to those we have discovered in the deep oceans of Earth. The necessary internal heat is generated by tidal heating (see the discussion later in this chapter).

What makes the idea of an ocean with warm springs exciting is the discovery in Earth’s oceans of large ecosystems clustered around deep ocean hot springs. Such life derives all its energy from the mineral-laden water and thrives independent of the sunlight shining on Earth’s surface. Is it possible that similar ecosystems could exist today under the ice of Europa?

Many scientists now think that Europa is the most likely place beyond Earth to find life in the solar system. In response, NASA is designing a Europa mission to characterize its liquid ocean and its ice crust, and to identify locations where material from inside has risen to the surface. Such interior material might reveal direct evidence for microbial life. In planning a future mission, it may be possible to include a small lander craft as well.

Lo, a volcanic moon

Io , the innermost of Jupiter’s Galilean moons, is in many ways a close twin of our Moon, with nearly the same size and density. We might therefore expect it to have experienced a similar history. Its appearance, as photographed from space, tells us another story, however ( [link] ). Instead of being a dead cratered world, Io turns out to have the highest level of volcanism in the solar system, greatly exceeding that of Earth.

Two sides of io.

Two images of front and back comparison of the moon Io, showing that it is volcanically active.
This composite image shows both sides of the volcanically active moon Io . The orange deposits are sulfur snow; the white is sulfur dioxide. (Carl Sagan once quipped that Io looks as if it desperately needs a shot of penicillin.) (credit: modification of work by NASA/JPL/USGS)

Io’s active volcanism was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft. Eight volcanoes were seen erupting when Voyager 1 passed in March 1979, and six of these were still active four months later when Voyager 2 passed. With the improved instruments carried by the Galileo spacecraft, more than 50 eruptions were found during 1997 alone. Many of the eruptions produce graceful plumes that extend hundreds of kilometers out into space ( [link] ).

Volcanic eruptions on io.

On the left is an image of volcanic eruption on Io. On the right are two smaller close-up images of volcanic eruption.
This composite image from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft shows close-ups (the two inset photos) of two separate volcanic eruptions on Jupiter’s volcanic moon, Io. In the upper inset image, you can see a close up of a bluish plume rising about 140 kilometers above the surface of the volcano. In the lower inset image is the Prometheus plume, rising about 75 kilometers from Io’s surface. The Prometheus plume is named for the Greek god of fire. (credit: modification of work by NASA/JPL)

Questions & Answers

In planet mars there the life exits or not and is there water there
Eshwarsa Reply
see till now nothing can be found as u know that the curiosity rover has struck in mars
Maya
what is your opinion about the theory of Vedas about modern physics..
Manish Reply
i think in some ways vedas are also correct but not everytime
Maya
I agree
sakshi
hmm even I agree
Samuel
Is there any patened theory about time relativitg in growth and development?
donot Reply
some astronomer's says that there is no alien exist but why search for extra terrestrial intelligence center is established
Eshwarsa Reply
No One Knows That For Absolute Fact, The Universe Is Too Huge To Have Any Type Of Idea About What Exist In The Far Reaches Of Our Universe.....
Adam
Check Out The Drake Equation.....
Adam
their should be aliens as like ours there would be another planet
Maya
which could have existed life on it
Maya
adam i want to ask a question
Maya
can kepler 1st law be applied on all the planets of the universe
Maya
hello, anyone home?
Denise
sjskskfhjkkktewqqw and try?
Lanika Reply
what is this ?
Samuel
hi I am Samuel from India mumbai
Samuel
nice to meet you
Samuel
thats my question, what is this?
penzias and wilson's a discovery of the cosmic microwave background is a nice example of scientific serendipity-something that is found by chance but turns out to have a positive outcome
Jacqueline Reply
how should I make my carrier in astronomy
Ayush Reply
I think that Newton's third law is not appropriate if any also thinks like this please reply me
Ayush
Can you explain your reasoning
Huh
why u think so
joseph
yes Ayush u are right
Yoganshu
I think when we apply force to a object it start moving but , a/c to Newton's third law every action has equal and opposite reaction,so object should also exert equal force on us and it should not move due to balanced force
Ayush
if I am not right then reply me
Ayush
no
Zack
because of friction that opposes that force and help us to move ahead
Manish
but this is not satisfied as third law say another thing
Ayush
you are telling why object moves
Ayush
you have to think a/c to third law
Ayush
its because of its mass
Maya
because it is applying equal and opposite force but also our mass is also less in comparison to the object
Maya
which is why we cant move the object but it can make move us
Maya
manish is too correct in his place because we need to apply force which would overcome the frictional force
Maya
My dear friends, can u plz tell me that among u guys who are in the field of cosmology
Madhav Reply
😢I am not there in cosmology
Samuel
Just A Science Fan.....
Adam
Adam even I am 😥😅😅😂😂
Samuel
I am also not in cosmology but I am just a fan or we can say science and part of NASA is my dream
Yoganshu
yoganshu Arya same here
Samuel
you are from which country
Yoganshu
hi yoganshu
Samuel
India
Samuel
which state
Samuel
I am also from India
Yoganshu
from delhi
Yoganshu
and u...?
Yoganshu
I am from Maharashtra
Samuel
from which state?
Yoganshu
You are a ASTRONOMER ...
Yoganshu
or a scientist..
Yoganshu
or just a member
Yoganshu
What is time...? not about Newton= time is constant..... that all scientists openions n point of view I m knowing. . what can be the Perfect Definition of Time
Madhav Reply
time is what clock reads
Ayush
Who is the best astronomer of India at present time
Gian Reply
Jayant Narlikar, Proponent Of Steady State Cosmology.....
Adam
What is the real colour of sun rays
Gian Reply
white.. so white it becomes violet.. so violet it become ultraviolet
Tom
white and red and yellow
Bianca
Vibgyor
Samuel
the real colour of sunlight is White
Madhav
the Sun's has a variety of waves all throughout the elextromagnetic spectrum.
Jacie
we only see it as a few bc of how some of them get redshifted (? can that term be applied for something so local?) by some particles in our upper atmosphere
Jacie
Vibgyor will be when, the white light will pass through the clouds ( prism ) then Refraction phenomenon leads us to 7 colours splitting from a single colour "White " light
Madhav
so the sun rays r of White colour
Madhav
Taurus in astronomy and horoscope?
Yasser Reply
how to put E=MC2
Gospel Reply
What Do You Mean By How To Put?
Adam
What Do You Mean By How To Put?
Adam
What Do You Mean By "How To Put E=MC2?
Adam
yep
Gospel
Hi guys
Samuel
i mean how NASA came to know the mass and diameters of Stars.how?
Gospel
how did they do using E=MC2
Gospel
thats my questioning
Gospel
that's easy formula's derivation
Madhav
why all planets revolving orbits are nearly in equal inclination?
Kartik Reply
***medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/ask-ethan-82-why-are-the-planets-all-in-the-same-plane-4470245c8743
rishabh
dependent on the mass
Madhav
no
Janak
I think because of the Suns gravity pull ,😕😕
Samuel
Samuel,. it's but obvious
Madhav
what hubbel's law. and examples on it.?
Kavyanjali Reply
Hubbel's Law is a Expanding Universe. The distant galaxies we see in all directions are moving away from the Earth, as evidenced by their red shifts. Hubble's law describes this expansion.
Роза
okk. sir/madam, i studied that all 3 laws.
Kavyanjali
i m solving examples on "p" square directly proportional to "a"cube
Kavyanjali
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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