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B cells

B cells    are immune cells that function primarily by producing antibodies. An antibody    is any of the group of proteins that binds specifically to pathogen-associated molecules known as antigens. An antigen    is a chemical structure on the surface of a pathogen that binds to T or B lymphocyte antigen receptors. Once activated by binding to antigen, B cells differentiate into cells that secrete a soluble form of their surface antibodies. These activated B cells are known as plasma cells.

T cells

The T cell    , on the other hand, does not secrete antibody but performs a variety of functions in the adaptive immune response. Different T cell types have the ability to either secrete soluble factors that communicate with other cells of the adaptive immune response or destroy cells infected with intracellular pathogens. The roles of T and B lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response will be discussed further in this chapter.

Plasma cells

Another type of lymphocyte of importance is the plasma cell. A plasma cell    is a B cell that has differentiated in response to antigen binding, and has thereby gained the ability to secrete soluble antibodies. These cells differ in morphology from standard B and T cells in that they contain a large amount of cytoplasm packed with the protein-synthesizing machinery known as rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Natural killer cells

A fourth important lymphocyte is the natural killer cell, a participant in the innate immune response. A natural killer cell (NK)    is a circulating blood cell that contains cytotoxic (cell-killing) granules in its extensive cytoplasm. It shares this mechanism with the cytotoxic T cells of the adaptive immune response. NK cells are among the body’s first lines of defense against viruses and certain types of cancer.

Lymphocytes
Type of lymphocyte Primary function
B lymphocyte Generates diverse antibodies
T lymphocyte Secretes chemical messengers
Plasma cell Secretes antibodies
NK cell Destroys virally infected cells

Visit this website to learn about the many different cell types in the immune system and their very specialized jobs. What is the role of the dendritic cell in an HIV infection?

Primary lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development

Understanding the differentiation and development of B and T cells is critical to the understanding of the adaptive immune response. It is through this process that the body (ideally) learns to destroy only pathogens and leaves the body’s own cells relatively intact. The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus gland. The lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes mature, proliferate, and are selected, which enables them to attack pathogens without harming the cells of the body.

Bone marrow

In the embryo, blood cells are made in the yolk sac. As development proceeds, this function is taken over by the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. Later, the bone marrow takes over most hematopoietic functions, although the final stages of the differentiation of some cells may take place in other organs. The red bone marrow    is a loose collection of cells where hematopoiesis occurs, and the yellow bone marrow is a site of energy storage, which consists largely of fat cells ( [link] ). The B cell undergoes nearly all of its development in the red bone marrow, whereas the immature T cell, called a thymocyte    , leaves the bone marrow and matures largely in the thymus gland.

Questions & Answers

Explain how different foods can affect metabolism
Abraham Reply
what is Endocrine system?
Islam Reply
which secrete hormones and other products direct into the blood
Aadi
Cell is basic, structural and functional unit of life
Kabuja Reply
The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and is sometimes called the "building block of life." Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell.
Br_
hi am new here..wish to join you in this conversation
Rachel
welcome Rachel am Brianito
hingi
hey
HALLELUYAH
can some one help
HALLELUYAH
what is the basic function of the lymphatic system
HALLELUYAH
The other main function is that of defense in the immune system. Lymph is very similar to blood plasma: it contains lymphocytes. It also contains waste products and cellular debris together with bacteria and proteins. Associated organs composed of lymphoid tissue are the sites of lymphocyte producti
Adnan
the function of lymphatic system are 1fluid balance 2 lipid absorption and 3 defence
Sidra
destroyed microognism
Usman
lymphatic systems main function is to transport lymph
Colleen
may i know the meaning of infestation of parasite?
Aminiely
Which of the following accurately describe external respirations
Robin Reply
different between anatomy and physiology
Samwel Reply
anatomy is the study of STRUCTURE of the body while physiology is the study of the function of the part of the body
Gborgbor
Anatomy deals with the structure and parts of the body while physiology is the function of the the body parts
Archie
not understanding what is a cell
Kesa Reply
its the fundamental unit of life or its the primary step in which two or more cell combine to form a tissue .
Sidra
Is the smallest structural and functional unit of life
Aliyu
cell is the basic you unit of life
Esther
what is osteomalàcia
Ellen Reply
what is hydroxyapitate
Ellen
Hydroxyapatite, also called hydroxylapatite, is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca₅(PO₄)₃, but it is usually written Ca₁₀(PO₄)₆(OH)₂ to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities. Hydroxyapatite is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite gro
Br_
..up
Br_
what's the best way to memorize the terms and what it does
Kesa
osteomalacia is where inorganic or mineral which is calcium and phosphorus are removed from a bone....this will make the bone become flexible n in children is called ricket
Rashida
wat work does anatomy do in the hospital and can they get work fast after finishing
SULE Reply
what is the meaning of suture?
praba Reply
it is a protective layer of brain
Madhureddy
it is a kind of non movable joint present between skull bones
neha
suture is an example of fibrous joint and is synatrosys(is not movable)
Rashida
a junction between the sclerites of an imsect's body
Aadi
c organ,organ system, organism
Dorothy Reply
reproductive sytstem
Dorothy
describe structure and functions of spleen
Umesh Reply
why calcium does not prodecessed by biological process?
James Reply
when calcium isn't processed that becomes Calcium Homeostasis
Br_
follow this link for extra info on all processes of calcium including calcium metabolism > ***google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=***opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/6-7-calcium-homeostasis-interactions-of-the-skeletal-system-and-other-organ-systems/&ved=2ahUKEwi06LTw-sP
Br_
Copy it and paste it on your browser url
Br_
What are the functions of batholine glan
Aliyu Reply
secretions
Sadia
Of what
Aliyu
what is pathogen
Nafiw Reply
hello
KING
an organism who invades the susceptible host
Mannu
what tenderness chord
KING
Tenderness A She tried to show me how to love D I bit her lips and bruised ...
Lovely
wha
Mannu
is not
KING
Pathogens are decease causing agents.... it can be a viral infection or fungai infection... thank u
Issah
laws of Gregor mended of genetics
Gloria
What is nosocomial
Bin
hospital accused infection.
Mailes
Hospital acquired infections
Clarice
Hospital acquired infections
Mailes
Hospital acquired infection
Vida
How do we measure power in skeletal muscles....
Terry Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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