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Circumduction is the movement of a body region in a circular manner, in which one end of the body region being moved stays relatively stationary while the other end describes a circle. It involves the sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction at a joint. This type of motion is found at biaxial condyloid and saddle joints, and at multiaxial ball-and-sockets joints (see [link] e ).


Rotation can occur within the vertebral column, at a pivot joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae. At a pivot joint, one bone rotates in relation to another bone. This is a uniaxial joint, and thus rotation is the only motion allowed at a pivot joint. For example, at the atlantoaxial joint, the first cervical (C1) vertebra (atlas) rotates around the dens, the upward projection from the second cervical (C2) vertebra (axis). This allows the head to rotate from side to side as when shaking the head “no.” The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint formed by the head of the radius and its articulation with the ulna. This joint allows for the radius to rotate along its length during pronation and supination movements of the forearm.

Rotation can also occur at the ball-and-socket joints of the shoulder and hip. Here, the humerus and femur rotate around their long axis, which moves the anterior surface of the arm or thigh either toward or away from the midline of the body. Movement that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation    . Conversely, rotation of the limb so that the anterior surface moves away from the midline is lateral (external) rotation    (see [link] f ). Be sure to distinguish medial and lateral rotation, which can only occur at the multiaxial shoulder and hip joints, from circumduction, which can occur at either biaxial or multiaxial joints.

Supination and pronation

Supination and pronation are movements of the forearm. In the anatomical position, the upper limb is held next to the body with the palm facing forward. This is the supinated position    of the forearm. In this position, the radius and ulna are parallel to each other. When the palm of the hand faces backward, the forearm is in the pronated position    , and the radius and ulna form an X-shape.

Supination and pronation are the movements of the forearm that go between these two positions. Pronation is the motion that moves the forearm from the supinated (anatomical) position to the pronated (palm backward) position. This motion is produced by rotation of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint, accompanied by movement of the radius at the distal radioulnar joint. The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint that allows for rotation of the head of the radius. Because of the slight curvature of the shaft of the radius, this rotation causes the distal end of the radius to cross over the distal ulna at the distal radioulnar joint. This crossing over brings the radius and ulna into an X-shape position. Supination is the opposite motion, in which rotation of the radius returns the bones to their parallel positions and moves the palm to the anterior facing (supinated) position. It helps to remember that supination is the motion you use when scooping up soup with a spoon (see [link] g ).

Questions & Answers

describe the location of the macula densa and explain its role in the regulation of renin secretion and in tubuglomerular feedback
mwamba Reply
Describe two early induced responses and what pathogens they affect
olivia Reply
what are pathogens
pathogens are disease-causing agents/organisms
pathogen are the causative of disease
thank you sister
What are organelles
The are little organs found in cells of living things... Eg gogi apparatus
what is anatomy
Linda Reply
is the study of the structures of the body and how they relates to each other
Anatomy is the study of the structures of body parts and how they relates to each other
is the study of the structure of the body and how they relates to each other
what are the difference between Pacinian corpuscle and cutaneous vascular plexus?
thivya Reply
what are membranous epithelial tissues
Naa Reply
they are the lining and covering epithelial tissues which cover body surfaces and line cavities... they're grouped into simple and stratified according to the number of layers and squamous, cuboidal and columnar according to their shape
what is an acina
acina is known to be the basic functional unit of the lungs .(singular:- acinus) this is where the alveoli(the gaseous exchange site) is found...
what happens to the unfertilized egg
the study of tissues is called
Scandy Reply
microscopic or histology anatomy
What specific types of biological macromolecules do living things require and why?
Marieland Reply
what is partial pressure?
Tariq Reply
it is the pressure exerted by mixture of gases...
What is the Important of studying anatomy and philosophy
Michael Reply
because to know the mechanisms of our body
to discover the regional structural of human body based on physically and also biochemically.
how many region do we have in human body
nsofor Reply
head thorax abdomen and many kind of...
what is principal ponatine nucleas
Human body can be divided into different regions on the basis of: 1. Systems: e.g. digestive system, respiratory system, excretory system etc.. 2. Parts: e.g. head, thorax, neck, upper limbs, lower limbs etc..
we have 9 region in d human body
what is systematic anatomy?
nsofor Reply
it is the anatomy or study of a certain body system for example the digestive system. or respiratory system.
It is a group of structure that work together to perform a unique function..
describe the division of anatomy and physiology
Vissa Reply
the what and the how
anatomy is the structure. physiology is the function.
what is homeostasis?
the balance if everything in your body
is the tendency of the body to maintain the internal environment
It is the ability of systems and living organisms to adjust its internal environment
how does a saggital plane look like and a frontal plane
susan Reply
saggital plane divides left and right.. frontal plane divides front and back.. I'm trying to upload a picture but idk how.
tnx sis
The sagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right anteriorly whilst the frontal plane divides the body into the posterior(back) and anterior(front) parts. They're all perpendicular to the transverse plane.
what is a neurones?
Angella Reply
how many systems are there in human
It is a cell that specialized to conduct nerve impulse

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