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Left kidney

The left panel of this figure shows the location of the kidneys in the abdomen. The right panel shows the cross section of the kidney.

Renal hilum

The renal hilum    is the entry and exit site for structures servicing the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters. The medial-facing hila are tucked into the sweeping convex outline of the cortex. Emerging from the hilum is the renal pelvis, which is formed from the major and minor calyxes in the kidney. The smooth muscle in the renal pelvis funnels urine via peristalsis into the ureter. The renal arteries form directly from the descending aorta, whereas the renal veins return cleansed blood directly to the inferior vena cava. The artery, vein, and renal pelvis are arranged in an anterior-to-posterior order.

Nephrons and vessels

The renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobar arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex ( [link] ). The interlobar arteries, in turn, branch into arcuate arteries, cortical radiate arteries, and then into afferent arterioles. The afferent arterioles service about 1.3 million nephrons in each kidney.

Blood flow in the kidney

This figure shows the network of blood vessels and the blood flow in the kidneys.

Nephrons are the “functional units” of the kidney; they cleanse the blood and balance the constituents of the circulation. The afferent arterioles form a tuft of high-pressure capillaries about 200 µm in diameter, the glomerulus    . The rest of the nephron consists of a continuous sophisticated tubule whose proximal end surrounds the glomerulus in an intimate embrace—this is Bowman’s capsule    . The glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule together form the renal corpuscle    . As mentioned earlier, these glomerular capillaries filter the blood based on particle size. After passing through the renal corpuscle, the capillaries form a second arteriole, the efferent arteriole    ( [link] ). These will next form a capillary network around the more distal portions of the nephron tubule, the peritubular capillaries    and vasa recta    , before returning to the venous system. As the glomerular filtrate progresses through the nephron, these capillary networks recover most of the solutes and water, and return them to the circulation. Since a capillary bed (the glomerulus) drains into a vessel that in turn forms a second capillary bed, the definition of a portal system is met. This is the only portal system in which an arteriole is found between the first and second capillary beds. (Portal systems also link the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary, and the blood vessels of the digestive viscera to the liver.)

Blood flow in the nephron

This image shows the blood vessels and the direction of blood flow in the nephron.
The two capillary beds are clearly shown in this figure. The efferent arteriole is the connecting vessel between the glomerulus and the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta.

Visit this link to view an interactive tutorial of the flow of blood through the kidney.


In a dissected kidney, it is easy to identify the cortex; it appears lighter in color compared to the rest of the kidney. All of the renal corpuscles as well as both the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs)    and distal convoluted tubules    are found here. Some nephrons have a short loop of Henle    that does not dip beyond the cortex. These nephrons are called cortical nephrons    . About 15 percent of nephrons have long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla and are called juxtamedullary nephrons    .

Chapter review

As noted previously, the structure of the kidney is divided into two principle regions—the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla. The two kidneys receive about 25 percent of cardiac output. They are protected in the retroperitoneal space by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle. Ureters, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave at the renal hilum. The renal arteries arise directly from the aorta, and the renal veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. Kidney function is derived from the actions of about 1.3 million nephrons per kidney; these are the “functional units.” A capillary bed, the glomerulus, filters blood and the filtrate is captured by Bowman’s capsule. A portal system is formed when the blood flows through a second capillary bed surrounding the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the loop of Henle. Most water and solutes are recovered by this second capillary bed. This filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor calyces, which merge to form major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the renal pelvis and finally the ureters.

Questions & Answers

what are the advantages of the concave shape of red blood cells?
Amy Reply
This structure is VERY flexible. It can allow these cells to get into the most tiny places in our bodies. a VERY good design! The advantage of red blood cells' biconcave shape is that the surface area is increased to allow more haemoglobin to be stored in the cell.
They can stack so that they can move to capillaries
action of gluteus medius and minimus
Green Reply
Lateral rotation of the hip joint
Briefly explain location of ecg on a patient
Prince Reply
it is a machine that gives a graphical representation of heart beat
Briefly explain location of ecg leads on a patient?
in ecg we use electrical leads over the chest ,ancle and wrist
what is the anatomical and function difference between paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia ?
Rada Reply
types of tissue in human
Preety Reply
charactetistic Of cartilaginous tissue
what is theRecurrent infection?
pankaj Reply
what do you mean about recurrent infection
Recurrent or persistent infection is a manifestation of primary immuno deficiency
weakens the immune system, allowing infections and other health problems to occur more easily
lysis of RBC
What is barometric pressure
Kedha's Reply
what is the agglutination advantage
Gopal Reply
the functions of the liver
Nana Reply
it produces bile juice which is used to make the food smaller
it also plays an important role in conversion of amino acid into urea
it also has role in gluconeogenesis in which amino acids and lipids convert into glucose.
during fetal life it's a center for hemopoiesis (formation of blood cells)
it filters, or removes, harmful substances from the blood
It stores nutrients, such as vitamins and iron,for the body
what is the largest gland in human body
Shahid Reply
thyroid gland
thyroid is largest endocrine gland
describe microscopic structures of the kidney
Nana Reply
kidney is covered by fibrous capsule, consists of an outer cortex and inner medulla with medullary pyramids. The microscopic structure is seen as 1-2 millions of nephrons and collecting tubule.
identify the four major tissue types
Binkheir Reply
connective epithelial
two ramining
muscle nervous
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue
tell me about urine formation
Nana Reply
it includes three steps. ultrafiltration selective reabsorption tubular secretion
ultrafiltration also known as glomerular filteration. All solutes up to 4nm size and water can freely pass through the filtering membrane.
selective reabsorption : About more than 99% of water ,electrolytes and other substances are reabsorbed by the tubular epithelial cells. The reabsorbed subtances move into interstitial fluid and then into blood of peritubular capillaries .
The substances like water ,glucose,amino acids and electrolyte are reabsorbed
tublar secretion: the substances are transported from blood to again into the renal tubules
and then those are excreted out as urine
internal and external structures of the kidney
Nana Reply
how the kidney works
on the bases of pressure and filtration
excretion of wasts, role in hb, role in vit D synthesis
care to explain?
yes plx
the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic
Binkheir Reply
eukaryotic don't have nucleus and prokaryotic have nucleus.
no, the eukaryotic has well enveloped nucleus and prokaryotic has nucleus without membrane which is also known as nucleoid
Eukaryotes have organized nucleus and prokaryotes don't have organized nucleus
normal blood volume in our body
pankaj Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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