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B cells

B cells    are immune cells that function primarily by producing antibodies. An antibody    is any of the group of proteins that binds specifically to pathogen-associated molecules known as antigens. An antigen    is a chemical structure on the surface of a pathogen that binds to T or B lymphocyte antigen receptors. Once activated by binding to antigen, B cells differentiate into cells that secrete a soluble form of their surface antibodies. These activated B cells are known as plasma cells.

T cells

The T cell    , on the other hand, does not secrete antibody but performs a variety of functions in the adaptive immune response. Different T cell types have the ability to either secrete soluble factors that communicate with other cells of the adaptive immune response or destroy cells infected with intracellular pathogens. The roles of T and B lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response will be discussed further in this chapter.

Plasma cells

Another type of lymphocyte of importance is the plasma cell. A plasma cell    is a B cell that has differentiated in response to antigen binding, and has thereby gained the ability to secrete soluble antibodies. These cells differ in morphology from standard B and T cells in that they contain a large amount of cytoplasm packed with the protein-synthesizing machinery known as rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Natural killer cells

A fourth important lymphocyte is the natural killer cell, a participant in the innate immune response. A natural killer cell (NK)    is a circulating blood cell that contains cytotoxic (cell-killing) granules in its extensive cytoplasm. It shares this mechanism with the cytotoxic T cells of the adaptive immune response. NK cells are among the body’s first lines of defense against viruses and certain types of cancer.

Lymphocytes
Type of lymphocyte Primary function
B lymphocyte Generates diverse antibodies
T lymphocyte Secretes chemical messengers
Plasma cell Secretes antibodies
NK cell Destroys virally infected cells

Visit this website to learn about the many different cell types in the immune system and their very specialized jobs. What is the role of the dendritic cell in an HIV infection?

Primary lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development

Understanding the differentiation and development of B and T cells is critical to the understanding of the adaptive immune response. It is through this process that the body (ideally) learns to destroy only pathogens and leaves the body’s own cells relatively intact. The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus gland. The lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes mature, proliferate, and are selected, which enables them to attack pathogens without harming the cells of the body.

Bone marrow

In the embryo, blood cells are made in the yolk sac. As development proceeds, this function is taken over by the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. Later, the bone marrow takes over most hematopoietic functions, although the final stages of the differentiation of some cells may take place in other organs. The red bone marrow    is a loose collection of cells where hematopoiesis occurs, and the yellow bone marrow is a site of energy storage, which consists largely of fat cells ( [link] ). The B cell undergoes nearly all of its development in the red bone marrow, whereas the immature T cell, called a thymocyte    , leaves the bone marrow and matures largely in the thymus gland.

Questions & Answers

What is embryology?
Nana Reply
Is embryology considered as part of the human anatomy?
Nana Reply
yes, it is
fatoumata
what is the structural unit of a compact bone?
fatoumata
off course it is.
Shiveshwri
yahh
Pir
which type of vein is suitable for injection?
Belinda
what is the function of liver, small and large intestine?
Michalis Reply
small interstine helps with chemical digestion and reabsorption of food. liver is very important for chemical digestion because it releases bile to break down the fats you eat. large interstine absorbs water and some vitamins from chyme (food from the stomach) before it returns to feces.
Nejat
ThQ
Michalis
Mechanical digestion begins from your mouth. our mouth has enzymes which help us break down food and change it into bolus. chemical digestion begins in the stomach. our stomach produces "pepsin" which breaks down proteins. Chemically broken down food will be reabsorbed in the small interstine.
Nejat
chemical digestion also begins in our mouth since there are enzymes
Nejat
what is vestegeal organ
Adam Reply
it is related with ear
Muhmmad
An organ that is no longer necessary or needed and has degraded. The appendix (an organ on the alimentary canal) is considered vestigial as it's use is minimal, only controlling colon bacteria.
Lucius
what is the other name of a cell?
Songe Reply
describe mast cells?
Songe
draw the diagram of bone cell and label the parts?
Songe
what is a treatment of cuncer
Tumwine Reply
in some cases cancer is untreated ....it can be minimized by using medicines.... or by cutting the abnormal growth of the cancerous cells if possible
Vinod
what is pulse & it's normal range of adult man & woman?
nayan Reply
Pulse is the heart beat The normal range is 60 - 90 beat in a minutes for adult
Mark
what is itching
Vincent Reply
what are the types of anatomy?
Aniphu Reply
gross or macroscopic and microscopic
Julia
if a person is visiting Denver CO why may they need to increase the rate of ventilation until they adapt?
Amy Reply
pressure changes between the atmosphere and thoracic cavity will change creating more ventilation. Also there is less pressure of Oxygen and hemoglobin already has less affinity for it than CO2 so there is less to bind than your body might be used to, increasing CO2 build up.
Kevin
To compensate for the CO2 build up we breathe faster to make our blood less acidic. Eventually EPO will kick in build more RBC to compensate for the lower O2 concentration.
Kevin
what is the fuction of tostiriol glands
abdifitah Reply
It's tonsilar?
Dr.
or tostiriol
Dr.
what are some examples of muscles predominantly composed of Fast glycolytic fibers?
Rey Reply
what is cardinal signs, and pathophysiology of those cardinal signs. can anyone explain..
Richard Reply
cardinal signs of inflammation!
Madhuri
then they are rubor,tumor,calor,dolar,functio laesa
Madhuri
rubor is redness due to vasodilatation
Madhuri
tumor is swelling due exudation of plasma
Madhuri
calor is rise in temperature
Madhuri
dolar is pain due to stimulation of nerve ending
Madhuri
functio laesa is loss of function
Madhuri
why are tha bp
Dharm Reply
Kya puchna chahate ho
Yamini
wrong question
Asif
blood pressure
SAJJAD
means
Dr.
means diastolic 85 up
Mohamed
whats is the cell cycle
Dharm Reply
The cell cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
Nisha

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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