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Metabolism

This illustration shows food entering a cell and being broken down into smaller particles of different colors. This is catabolism, which releases energy. In anabolism, the different colored particles are combined with each other to form larger, multi-colored structures. Anabolism requires an energy input.
Anabolic reactions are building reactions, and they consume energy. Catabolic reactions break materials down and release energy. Metabolism includes both anabolic and catabolic reactions.

Every cell in your body makes use of a chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) , to store and release energy. The cell stores energy in the synthesis (anabolism) of ATP, then moves the ATP molecules to the location where energy is needed to fuel cellular activities. Then the ATP is broken down (catabolism) and a controlled amount of energy is released, which is used by the cell to perform a particular job.

View this animation to learn more about metabolic processes. What kind of catabolism occurs in the heart?

Responsiveness

Responsiveness is the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its internal and external environments. An example of responsiveness to external stimuli could include moving toward sources of food and water and away from perceived dangers. Changes in an organism’s internal environment, such as increased body temperature, can cause the responses of sweating and the dilation of blood vessels in the skin in order to decrease body temperature, as shown by the runners in [link] .

Movement

Human movement includes not only actions at the joints of the body, but also the motion of individual organs and even individual cells. As you read these words, red and white blood cells are moving throughout your body, muscle cells are contracting and relaxing to maintain your posture and to focus your vision, and glands are secreting chemicals to regulate body functions. Your body is coordinating the action of entire muscle groups to enable you to move air into and out of your lungs, to push blood throughout your body, and to propel the food you have eaten through your digestive tract. Consciously, of course, you contract your skeletal muscles to move the bones of your skeleton to get from one place to another (as the runners are doing in [link] ), and to carry out all of the activities of your daily life.

Marathon runners

This photo shows three young men running in a competitive marathon.
Runners demonstrate two characteristics of living humans—responsiveness and movement. Anatomic structures and physiological processes allow runners to coordinate the action of muscle groups and sweat in response to rising internal body temperature. (credit: Phil Roeder/flickr)

Development, growth and reproduction

Development is all of the changes the body goes through in life. Development includes the process of differentiation    , in which unspecialized cells become specialized in structure and function to perform certain tasks in the body. Development also includes the processes of growth and repair, both of which involve cell differentiation.

Growth is the increase in body size. Humans, like all multicellular organisms, grow by increasing the number of existing cells, increasing the amount of non-cellular material around cells (such as mineral deposits in bone), and, within very narrow limits, increasing the size of existing cells.

Reproduction is the formation of a new organism from parent organisms. In humans, reproduction is carried out by the male and female reproductive systems. Because death will come to all complex organisms, without reproduction, the line of organisms would end.

Chapter review

Most processes that occur in the human body are not consciously controlled. They occur continuously to build, maintain, and sustain life. These processes include: organization, in terms of the maintenance of essential body boundaries; metabolism, including energy transfer via anabolic and catabolic reactions; responsiveness; movement; and growth, differentiation, reproduction, and renewal.

View this animation to learn more about metabolic processes. What kind of catabolism occurs in the heart?

Fatty acid catabolism.

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Questions & Answers

what is plasma
Chukwu Reply
A plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately af a equal number of positive ly charged ionized and negative ly charged electron is called plasma.
Muhammad
what is an atomical position?
Madinatu
military position, body erect where by the body will be up straight..the cephalic and thoracic are straight
Mwita
functions of plasma membrane
Dinyando Reply
what is heparin
Lawrence Reply
why is it anatomy
Tenacious Reply
hello
ASIMENU
hi
asare
hws life
Tenacious
anatomy is the scientific study of the body's structure
Lawrence
great
Lawrence
good night
Kaaya
anatomy is the study of form, physiology is the study of function
Patrick
anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and the physical relationship between it constituent part
Florence
what is heparin
Lawrence
what is the trunk
Tenacious
trunk is define as a person's or animal's body apart from the limp and head
Lawrence
The trunk is part of the axial skeleton
Patrick
supine or dorsal position is used in clinical setting when patient is placed in position, to examine what?
Dinyando Reply
what do nurses/doctors detect when a patient is placed on dorsal position?
Dinyando
What is coroid process?
kelvin Reply
describe special situation with implications in medical ethics.
kelvin
what is the difference between anatomy and physiology
Dinyando Reply
anatomy is the study of human body . and physiology is the study of the brain
Maryiam
ok
Varun
hi friends
Varun
hi!
kelvin
hello
Maryiam
anatomy is the study of the human body,its form and it physical relations Whiles Physiology is the Study of the functions of the various part of the body
Madinatu
yes
Yeboah
sorry I cant see the full question
Jessica Reply
what was the question?
evelyna
what is spine as a bone marking?
John
similar to a crest but raised more
evelyna
pointed process
evelyna
slender
evelyna
pointed projection i meant
evelyna
what fills the hallow space in the middle of bones? thanks
John
marrow
evelyna
bone marrow
evelyna
hey you gotta read a book
evelyna
i just happen to take this bone chapter in my book last week so i remember
evelyna
yeah i should. how about the correct match of the number of tarsal, metatarsal and phalanges?
John
10, fingers and toes, u know this
Patrick
what is the difference between basal laminal and basal membrane
Nartey Reply
I think they r the same
Patrick
If one is missing the opsin which detects wavelengths of approximately 560 nm what color would they be unable to see?
Alicia Reply
how do I explain into details the epithelial tissue
Sir Reply
Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelialcell: squamous, columnar, and cub
DJ
thank you
Sir
explain how the intestinal irritation results in diarrhoea
Sir
what is cerebrospinal fluid
nitesha Reply
Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by the specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.
DJ
cerebrospinal fluid is the fluid present in the brain and spinal cord
olusoga
it is whitish in colour
olusoga
what are the function of the blood
Hannah Reply
to transport oxygen in hemoglobin and nutrients
Thembani
ok
Hannah
describe the pulmonary circulation
Hannah
Which of the following structures contains membranes with mucus glands and blood vessels to help humidify and warm air?
Sheika Reply
thoracic pump for blood, and lymphatic flow for mucus membranes .
Rugiatu
explanation shortly about organizaton of human body
Maulidi Reply
the human body is the entire structure of a human being.it is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems.they ensure homeostasis and viability of the human body
Chundu

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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