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Microvilli

As their name suggests, microvilli (singular = microvillus) are much smaller (1 µ m) than villi. They are cylindrical apical surface extensions of the plasma membrane of the mucosa’s epithelial cells, and are supported by microfilaments within those cells. Although their small size makes it difficult to see each microvillus, their combined microscopic appearance suggests a mass of bristles, which is termed the brush border    . Fixed to the surface of the microvilli membranes are enzymes that finish digesting carbohydrates and proteins. There are an estimated 200 million microvilli per square millimeter of small intestine, greatly expanding the surface area of the plasma membrane and thus greatly enhancing absorption.

Intestinal glands

In addition to the three specialized absorptive features just discussed, the mucosa between the villi is dotted with deep crevices that each lead into a tubular intestinal gland    (crypt of Lieberkühn), which is formed by cells that line the crevices (see [link] ). These produce intestinal juice    , a slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 to 7.8) mixture of water and mucus. Each day, about 0.95 to 1.9 liters (1 to 2 quarts) are secreted in response to the distention of the small intestine or the irritating effects of chyme on the intestinal mucosa.

The submucosa of the duodenum is the only site of the complex mucus-secreting duodenal glands (Brunner’s glands), which produce a bicarbonate-rich alkaline mucus that buffers the acidic chyme as it enters from the stomach.

The roles of the cells in the small intestinal mucosa are detailed in [link] .

Cells of the Small Intestinal Mucosa
Cell type Location in the mucosa Function
Absorptive Epithelium/intestinal glands Digestion and absorption of nutrients in chyme
Goblet Epithelium/intestinal glands Secretion of mucus
Paneth Intestinal glands Secretion of the bactericidal enzyme lysozyme; phagocytosis
G cells Intestinal glands of duodenum Secretion of the hormone intestinal gastrin
I cells Intestinal glands of duodenum Secretion of the hormone cholecystokinin, which stimulates release of pancreatic juices and bile
K cells Intestinal glands Secretion of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, which stimulates the release of insulin
M cells Intestinal glands of duodenum and jejunum Secretion of the hormone motilin, which accelerates gastric emptying, stimulates intestinal peristalsis, and stimulates the production of pepsin
S cells Intestinal glands Secretion of the hormone secretin

Intestinal malt

The lamina propria of the small intestine mucosa is studded with quite a bit of MALT. In addition to solitary lymphatic nodules, aggregations of intestinal MALT, which are typically referred to as Peyer’s patches, are concentrated in the distal ileum, and serve to keep bacteria from entering the bloodstream. Peyer’s patches are most prominent in young people and become less distinct as you age, which coincides with the general activity of our immune system.

Watch this animation that depicts the structure of the small intestine, and, in particular, the villi. Epithelial cells continue the digestion and absorption of nutrients and transport these nutrients to the lymphatic and circulatory systems. In the small intestine, the products of food digestion are absorbed by different structures in the villi. Which structure absorbs and transports fats?

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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