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Karposi’s sarcoma lesions

This photograph shows lesions on the surface of skin.
(credit: National Cancer Institute)

On the other hand, as cancer cells are often able to divide and mutate rapidly, they may escape the immune response, just as certain pathogens such as HIV do. There are three stages in the immune response to many cancers: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. Elimination occurs when the immune response first develops toward tumor-specific antigens specific to the cancer and actively kills most cancer cells, followed by a period of controlled equilibrium during which the remaining cancer cells are held in check. Unfortunately, many cancers mutate, so they no longer express any specific antigens for the immune system to respond to, and a subpopulation of cancer cells escapes the immune response, continuing the disease process.

This fact has led to extensive research in trying to develop ways to enhance the early immune response to completely eliminate the early cancer and thus prevent a later escape. One method that has shown some success is the use of cancer vaccines, which differ from viral and bacterial vaccines in that they are directed against the cells of one’s own body. Treated cancer cells are injected into cancer patients to enhance their anti-cancer immune response and thereby prolong survival. The immune system has the capability to detect these cancer cells and proliferate faster than the cancer cells do, overwhelming the cancer in a similar way as they do for viruses. Cancer vaccines have been developed for malignant melanoma, a highly fatal skin cancer, and renal (kidney) cell carcinoma. These vaccines are still in the development stages, but some positive and encouraging results have been obtained clinically.

It is tempting to focus on the complexity of the immune system and the problems it causes as a negative. The upside to immunity, however, is so much greater: The benefit of staying alive far outweighs the negatives caused when the system does sometimes go awry. Working on “autopilot,” the immune system helps to maintain your health and kill pathogens. The only time you really miss the immune response is when it is not being effective and illness results, or, as in the extreme case of HIV disease, the immune system is gone completely.

Everyday connection

How stress affects the immune response: the connections between the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems of the body

The immune system cannot exist in isolation. After all, it has to protect the entire body from infection. Therefore, the immune system is required to interact with other organ systems, sometimes in complex ways. Thirty years of research focusing on the connections between the immune system, the central nervous system, and the endocrine system have led to a new science with the unwieldy name of called psychoneuroimmunology    . The physical connections between these systems have been known for centuries: All primary and secondary organs are connected to sympathetic nerves. What is more complex, though, is the interaction of neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, and other soluble signaling molecules, and the mechanism of “crosstalk” between the systems. For example, white blood cells, including lymphocytes and phagocytes, have receptors for various neurotransmitters released by associated neurons. Additionally, hormones such as cortisol (naturally produced by the adrenal cortex) and prednisone (synthetic) are well known for their abilities to suppress T cell immune mechanisms, hence, their prominent use in medicine as long-term, anti-inflammatory drugs.

One well-established interaction of the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems is the effect of stress on immune health. In the human vertebrate evolutionary past, stress was associated with the fight-or-flight response, largely mediated by the central nervous system and the adrenal medulla. This stress was necessary for survival. The physical action of fighting or running, whichever the animal decides, usually resolves the problem in one way or another. On the other hand, there are no physical actions to resolve most modern day stresses, including short-term stressors like taking examinations and long-term stressors such as being unemployed or losing a spouse. The effect of stress can be felt by nearly every organ system, and the immune system is no exception ( [link] ).

Effects of Stress on Body Systems
System Stress-related illness
Integumentary system Acne, skin rashes, irritation
Nervous system Headaches, depression, anxiety, irritability, loss of appetite, lack of motivation, reduced mental performance
Muscular and skeletal systems Muscle and joint pain, neck and shoulder pain
Circulatory system Increased heart rate, hypertension, increased probability of heart attacks
Digestive system Indigestion, heartburn, stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, weight gain or loss
Immune system Depressed ability to fight infections
Male reproductive system Lowered sperm production, impotence, reduced sexual desire
Female reproductive system Irregular menstrual cycle, reduced sexual desire

At one time, it was assumed that all types of stress reduced all aspects of the immune response, but the last few decades of research have painted a different picture. First, most short-term stress does not impair the immune system in healthy individuals enough to lead to a greater incidence of diseases. However, older individuals and those with suppressed immune responses due to disease or immunosuppressive drugs may respond even to short-term stressors by getting sicker more often. It has been found that short-term stress diverts the body’s resources towards enhancing innate immune responses, which have the ability to act fast and would seem to help the body prepare better for possible infections associated with the trauma that may result from a fight-or-flight exchange. The diverting of resources away from the adaptive immune response, however, causes its own share of problems in fighting disease.

Chronic stress, unlike short-term stress, may inhibit immune responses even in otherwise healthy adults. The suppression of both innate and adaptive immune responses is clearly associated with increases in some diseases, as seen when individuals lose a spouse or have other long-term stresses, such as taking care of a spouse with a fatal disease or dementia. The new science of psychoneuroimmunology, while still in its relative infancy, has great potential to make exciting advances in our understanding of how the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems have evolved together and communicate with each other.

Chapter review

Blood transfusion and organ transplantation both require an understanding of the immune response to prevent medical complications. Blood needs to be typed so that natural antibodies against mismatched blood will not destroy it, causing more harm than good to the recipient. Transplanted organs must be matched by their MHC molecules and, with the use of immunosuppressive drugs, can be successful even if an exact tissue match cannot be made. Another aspect to the immune response is its ability to control and eradicate cancer. Although this has been shown to occur with some rare cancers and those caused by known viruses, the normal immune response to most cancers is not sufficient to control cancer growth. Thus, cancer vaccines designed to enhance these immune responses show promise for certain types of cancer.

References

Robinson J, Mistry K, McWilliam H, Lopez R, Parham P, Marsh SG. Nucleic acid research. IMGT/HLA Database [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2013 Apr 1]; 39:D1171–1176. Available from: (External Link)

Robinson J, Malik A, Parham P, Bodmer JG, Marsh SG. Tissue antigens. IMGT/HLA Database [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2013 Apr 1]; 55(3):280–287. Available from: (External Link)

Questions & Answers

what is the difference between a neuron and nerve?
Tonny Reply
Neurons are specialized cells which are capable of transmitting signals between different parts of the body. Nerve is a bundle of fibers composed of neurons. Therefore, neurons and nerves are closely related.
acquosuah
wow
Andy
what are the first aid procedures
Andy
what is a positive and negative feedback and give examples of both positive and negative feedback
esther Reply
Positive feedback is a feedback that tends to magnify its output. An example of positve feedback is the release of oxytocin from the pitutary gland during child birth. Negative feedback regulates a stimulus to cause a opposite effect. An example of this is when you eat your blood sugar rises,which
Camello
is sensed by the nervous system. specialized cells in the pancreas sense the increase and release the hormone insulin.
Camello
merci beaucoup
esther
what then is Pathological anatomy
acquosuah Reply
anatomy study about normal human organ... pathological anatomy study of diseased organ
Aswin
thanks
acquosuah
wow
Morshed
that's are good
Morshed
why oral glucose make insulin response in 1 phase but IV glucose make insulin response in 2 phase?
qwe Reply
what is anatomical position?
Kakande Reply
it's de description of any region or part of the body in specific strance
Andy
the standard anatomical position is standing straight with your hand an feet forward and the neck straight and face facing forward
Lubabah
how many cell do we have in our body
Sawmtei Reply
around 37.2 trillion
Jeremiah
how do you know when a women is lying
Hernandez
go with your gut
Stephanie
what is a positive and negative feedback and give examples of negative and positive feedback
esther Reply
messa I didn't understand this too
Shammy
and would love to know as well
Shammy
what are the various types of white blood cells
Andy Reply
what is cpr in first aid
Andy
various whiteblood cells includes Granulocytes (neutrophils,basophils ana eosinophils) and Agranulocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes)
Waziri
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cpr) is an emergency procedure. Uses chest compressions with artificial ventilation in an effort to preserve brain function until further measures are taken to restore blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Jeremiah
wow thanks alot
Andy
respiration is not just taking in of oxygen and bringing out Co2. that is called INHALATION AND EXHALATION. BUT RESPIRATION IS THE BREAKDOWN OF LARGE MOLECULES OF GLUCOSE OR OTHER SUBSTRATES IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN AND SUBSEQUENT REMOVAL OF WASTE PRODUCT
Osuji Reply
why study anatomy?
esther Reply
to know the detailed functioning of the internay body organs
Jam
we study anatomy to know about the structure of the organs which in turn help to study physiology which is the knowledge related to function of the vital organ,and when we know the normal functionality we can understand the abnormalities in that organ,and the study of disease is called pathology
Lubabah
why is it so hard to know the spelling and words
Sawmtei
they were made so that only the best and thr brightest would understand.
Senen
thank you
esther
to know the internal structure of the human body and how it function
Jaafar
whats antonmy
Jaan Reply
the study of structure and function of internal body parts
Jam
is a branch of biology which describes the structures of the body and relationship from one part to another
esther
I believe it is the scientific study of body structures that are both macro and micro.
acquosuah
wat the question is tis ! without knowing tis simple thing.. y didn't install tis app ..
Aswin
what is anatomy and physiology
mwitwa Reply
Anatomy is the study of structures of the body
Zunehri
Physiology the study functions of the body
Zunehri
anatomy is study of structure of body nd physiology is study of function of body.
PRIYANKA
anatomy is the study of internal body structures and physiology is the functioning of these structures in the body
Jam
what is lungs
Shipon Reply
it an organ found in our thoracic cavity
Richard
lungs are spongy organs where our respiration takesplace
Maryama
Lungs is a spongy organs located in the chest , is an a primary organs of respiration in human body and other Animals
Zunehri
lungs thorex me present hote hai ye organ hai and gas exchange (o2,co2 exchange)inka inka function hai.
PRIYANKA
lungs ka function hai
OM
pls am a student I don't know
Mavis
main function is respiration
faheem
respiration is the taking ing of oxygen by the body tissues and the removal of carbondioxide from the body tissues
Jam
what is heart beat,?
Naqeeb Reply
heart beat is the process briting
Mavis
what functions of heart
Muthu Reply
To circulate the blood
Arshad
it pump blood to the lungs
Laura
very twiest
Shipon

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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