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Minerals

Minerals in food are inorganic compounds that work with other nutrients to ensure the body functions properly. Minerals cannot be made in the body; they come from the diet. The amount of minerals in the body is small—only 4 percent of the total body mass—and most of that consists of the minerals that the body requires in moderate quantities: potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and chloride.

The most common minerals in the body are calcium and phosphorous, both of which are stored in the skeleton and necessary for the hardening of bones. Most minerals are ionized, and their ionic forms are used in physiological processes throughout the body. Sodium and chloride ions are electrolytes in the blood and extracellular tissues, and iron ions are critical to the formation of hemoglobin. There are additional trace minerals that are still important to the body’s functions, but their required quantities are much lower.

Like vitamins, minerals can be consumed in toxic quantities (although it is rare). A healthy diet includes most of the minerals your body requires, so supplements and processed foods can add potentially toxic levels of minerals. [link] and [link] provide a summary of minerals and their function in the body.

Major Minerals
Mineral Sources Recommended daily allowance Function Problems associated with deficiency
Potassium Meats, some fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products 4700 mg Nerve and muscle function; acts as an electrolyte Hypokalemia: weakness, fatigue, muscle cramping, gastrointestinal problems, cardiac problems
Sodium Table salt, milk, beets, celery, processed foods 2300 mg Blood pressure, blood volume, muscle and nerve function Rare
Calcium Dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, blackstrap molasses, nuts, brewer’s yeast, some fish 1000 mg Bone structure and health; nerve and muscle functions, especially cardiac function Slow growth, weak and brittle bones
Phosphorous Meat, milk 700 mg Bone formation, metabolism, ATP production Rare
Magnesium Whole grains, nuts, leafy green vegetables 310–420 mg Enzyme activation, production of energy, regulation of other nutrients Agitation, anxiety, sleep problems, nausea and vomiting, abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, muscular problems
Chloride Most foods, salt, vegetables, especially seaweed, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, olives 2300 mg Balance of body fluids, digestion Loss of appetite, muscle cramps
Trace Minerals
Mineral Sources Recommended daily allowance Function Problems associated with deficiency
Iron Meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, dark leafy green vegetables 8–18 mg Transport of oxygen in blood, production of ATP Anemia, weakness, fatigue
Zinc Meat, fish, poultry, cheese, shellfish 8–11 mg Immunity, reproduction, growth, blood clotting, insulin and thyroid function Loss of appetite, poor growth, weight loss, skin problems, hair loss, vision problems, lack of taste or smell
Copper Seafood, organ meats, nuts, legumes, chocolate, enriched breads and cereals, some fruits and vegetables 900 µ g Red blood cell production, nerve and immune system function, collagen formation, acts as an antioxidant Anemia, low body temperature, bone fractures, low white blood cell concentration, irregular heartbeat, thyroid problems
Iodine Fish, shellfish, garlic, lima beans, sesame seeds, soybeans, dark leafy green vegetables 150 µ g Thyroid function Hypothyroidism: fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, temperature sensitivity
Sulfur Eggs, meat, poultry, fish, legumes None Component of amino acids Protein deficiency
Fluoride Fluoridated water 3–4 mg Maintenance of bone and tooth structure Increased cavities, weak bones and teeth
Manganese Nuts, seeds, whole grains, legumes 1.8–2.3 mg Formation of connective tissue and bones, blood clotting, sex hormone development, metabolism, brain and nerve function Infertility, bone malformation, weakness, seizures
Cobalt Fish, nuts, leafy green vegetables, whole grains None Component of B 12 None
Selenium Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, liver, butter, fish, shellfish, whole grains 55 µ g Antioxidant, thyroid function, immune system function Muscle pain
Chromium Whole grains, lean meats, cheese, black pepper, thyme, brewer’s yeast 25–35 µ g Insulin function High blood sugar, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels
Molybdenum Legumes, whole grains, nuts 45 µ g Cofactor for enzymes Rare

Chapter review

Nutrition and diet affect your metabolism. More energy is required to break down fats and proteins than carbohydrates; however, all excess calories that are ingested will be stored as fat in the body. On average, a person requires 1500 to 2000 calories for normal daily activity, although routine exercise will increase that amount. If you ingest more than that, the remainder is stored for later use. Conversely, if you ingest less than that, the energy stores in your body will be depleted. Both the quantity and quality of the food you eat affect your metabolism and can affect your overall health. Eating too much or too little can result in serious medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes.

Vitamins and minerals are essential parts of the diet. They are needed for the proper function of metabolic pathways in the body. Vitamins are not stored in the body, so they must be obtained from the diet or synthesized from precursors available in the diet. Minerals are also obtained from the diet, but they are also stored, primarily in skeletal tissues.

Questions & Answers

what are the various types of white blood cells
Andy Reply
what is cpr in first aid
Andy
various whiteblood cells includes Granulocytes (neutrophils,basophils ana eosinophils) and Agranulocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes)
Waziri
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cpr) is an emergency procedure. Uses chest compressions with artificial ventilation in an effort to preserve brain function until further measures are taken to restore blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Jeremiah
respiration is not just taking in of oxygen and bringing out Co2. that is called INHALATION AND EXHALATION. BUT RESPIRATION IS THE BREAKDOWN OF LARGE MOLECULES OF GLUCOSE OR OTHER SUBSTRATES IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN AND SUBSEQUENT REMOVAL OF WASTE PRODUCT
Osuji Reply
why study anatomy?
esther Reply
to know the detailed functioning of the internay body organs
Jam
we study anatomy to know about the structure of the organs which in turn help to study physiology which is the knowledge related to function of the vital organ,and when we know the normal functionality we can understand the abnormalities in that organ,and the study of disease is called pathology
Lubabah
why is it so hard to know the spelling and words
Sawmtei
they were made so that only the best and thr brightest would understand.
Senen
thank you
esther
to know the internal structure of the human body and how it function
Jaafar
whats antonmy
Jaan Reply
the study of structure and function of internal body parts
Jam
is a branch of biology which describes the structures of the body and relationship from one part to another
esther
what is anatomy and physiology
mwitwa Reply
Anatomy is the study of structures of the body
Zunehri
Physiology the study functions of the body
Zunehri
anatomy is study of structure of body nd physiology is study of function of body.
PRIYANKA
anatomy is the study of internal body structures and physiology is the functioning of these structures in the body
Jam
what is lungs
Shipon Reply
it an organ found in our thoracic cavity
Richard
lungs are spongy organs where our respiration takesplace
Maryama
Lungs is a spongy organs located in the chest , is an a primary organs of respiration in human body and other Animals
Zunehri
lungs thorex me present hote hai ye organ hai and gas exchange (o2,co2 exchange)inka inka function hai.
PRIYANKA
lungs ka function hai
OM
pls am a student I don't know
Mavis
main function is respiration
faheem
respiration is the taking ing of oxygen by the body tissues and the removal of carbondioxide from the body tissues
Jam
what is heart beat,?
Naqeeb Reply
heart beat is the process briting
Mavis
what functions of heart
Muthu Reply
To circulate the blood
Arshad
it pump blood to the lungs
Laura
very twiest
Shipon
what should be the nature of cell
Kashish Reply
Cells die and reproduce
Nejat
knuckle of the middle finger
James Reply
because of the gases (nitrogen, oxygen)
Nejat
what is ketone bodies
Jaan
why the heart is protected with that sac
Joshua Reply
To prevent collision with the lungs, lubricates the heart, protects the heart from infection in the event a peripheral organ is effected, and stabilizes the heart within the mediastinum.
Jeremiah
This app should be updated too much as there is very little information for some topics.I hope you will consider my information....
aman Reply
adenohypophysis is made up of what type of cells and what is the name of those cells?
Mannu Reply
whatpassesthroughmaleovale
armstrong Reply
motor root of the trigeminal nerve
Vandana
what is the nervous system about
Joshua
what passes through foramen ovale?
Farah Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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