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Bone markings

The surface features of bones vary considerably, depending on the function and location in the body. [link] describes the bone markings, which are illustrated in ( [link] ). There are three general classes of bone markings: (1) articulations, (2) projections, and (3) holes. As the name implies, an articulation    is where two bone surfaces come together (articulus = “joint”). These surfaces tend to conform to one another, such as one being rounded and the other cupped, to facilitate the function of the articulation. A projection    is an area of a bone that projects above the surface of the bone. These are the attachment points for tendons and ligaments. In general, their size and shape is an indication of the forces exerted through the attachment to the bone. A hole    is an opening or groove in the bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to enter the bone. As with the other markings, their size and shape reflect the size of the vessels and nerves that penetrate the bone at these points.

Bone Markings
Marking Description Example
Articulations Where two bones meet Knee joint
Head Prominent rounded surface Head of femur
Facet Flat surface Vertebrae
Condyle Rounded surface Occipital condyles
Projections Raised markings Spinous process of the vertebrae
Protuberance Protruding Chin
Process Prominence feature Transverse process of vertebra
Spine Sharp process Ischial spine
Tubercle Small, rounded process Tubercle of humerus
Tuberosity Rough surface Deltoid tuberosity
Line Slight, elongated ridge Temporal lines of the parietal bones
Crest Ridge Iliac crest
Holes Holes and depressions Foramen (holes through which blood vessels can pass through)
Fossa Elongated basin Mandibular fossa
Fovea Small pit Fovea capitis on the head of the femur
Sulcus Groove Sigmoid sulcus of the temporal bones
Canal Passage in bone Auditory canal
Fissure Slit through bone Auricular fissure
Foramen Hole through bone Foramen magnum in the occipital bone
Meatus Opening into canal External auditory meatus
Sinus Air-filled space in bone Nasal sinus

Bone features

This illustration contains three diagrams. The left diagram is titled examples of processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach. The image shows an anterior view of the femur and an anterior view of the humerus. For the femur, the distal epiphysis contains a smaller lateral bulge and a larger medial bulge. These are examples of condyles. The inner halves of the two condyles as well as the groove between them compose a facet. An oval-shaped ridge on the medial surface of the distal metaphysis is an example of a tubercle. On the proximal epiphysis of the femur, the large knob that attaches to the hip socket is an example of a head. The tip of the head contains a small depression, an example of a fovea called the fovea capitis. On the humerus, the distal epiphysis contains a central depression that is an example of a fossa. Two condyles are located on the right and left sides of the fossa. The diaphysis of the humerus contains a small ridge running up the shaft that is an example of a tuberosity. The proximal epiphysis of the humerus contains a lateral and a medial bulge that are both examples of tubercles. Finally, a narrow groove runs from the center of the proximal metaphysis in between the medial and lateral condyles. This is an example of a sulcus. The middle image is entitled elevations or depressions. It shows an anterior view of the hip bones. The hip bones are shaped like two wings that join at the bottom. The crest along the upper edge of each hip bones, at the tip of each “wing” is an example of an elevation. A depression on the inner surface of both hip bones just under the crest is called out as a fossa. The right image is entitled examples of openings and shows an anterior view of the skull. The bone underlying the chin is an example of a protuberance while two small holes above each eye socket are examples of foramen. Five green sinuses surround the nose cavity are colored green. These are sinuses because they are hollowed out cavities within the skull bones. A small channel leads into the corner of each eye where the tear ducts occur. These two channels are both examples of a canal. Finally, the bones that form the posterior wall of the eye socket have a small crack running diagonally away from the nose. These are examples of fissures.
The surface features of bones depend on their function, location, attachment of ligaments and tendons, or the penetration of blood vessels and nerves.

Bone cells and tissue

Bone contains a relatively small number of cells entrenched in a matrix of collagen fibers that provide a surface for inorganic salt crystals to adhere. These salt crystals form when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combine to create hydroxyapatite, which incorporates other inorganic salts like magnesium hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate as it crystallizes, or calcifies, on the collagen fibers. The hydroxyapatite crystals give bones their hardness and strength, while the collagen fibers give them flexibility so that they are not brittle.

Although bone cells compose a small amount of the bone volume, they are crucial to the function of bones. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts ( [link] ).

Bone cells

The top of this diagram shows the cross section of a generic bone with three zoom in boxes. The first box is on the periosteum. The second box is on the middle of the compact bone layer. The third box is on the inner edge of the compact bone where it transitions into the spongy bone. The callout in the periosteum points to two images. In the first image, four osteoblast cells are sitting end to end on the periosteum. The osteoblasts are roughly square shaped, except for one of the cells which is developing small, finger like projections. The caption says, “Osteoblasts form the matrix of the bone.” The second image called out from the periosteum shows a large, amorphous osteogenic cell sitting on the periosteum. The osteogenic cell is surrounded on both sides by a row of much smaller osteoblasts. The cell is shaped like a mushroom cap and also has finger like projections. The cell is a stem cell that develops into other bone cells. The box in the middle of the compact bone layer is pointing to an osteocyte. The osteocyte is a thin cell, roughly diamond shaped, with many branching, finger-like projections. The osteoctyes maintain bone tissue. The box at the inner edge of the compact bone is pointing to an osteoclast. The osteoclast is a large, round cell with multiple nuclei. It also has rows of fine finger like projections on its lower surface where it is sitting on the compact bone. The osteoclast reabsorbs bone.
Four types of cells are found within bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and develop into osteoblasts. When osteoblasts get trapped within the calcified matrix, their structure and function changes, and they become osteocytes. Osteoclasts develop from monocytes and macrophages and differ in appearance from other bone cells.

Questions & Answers

What are some of first questions are expected in anatomy and physiology course
Milner Reply
what is pacemaker
mekfira
its a device that is put into the heart to make sure it beats properly
Michelle
which of the following is the epithelial tissue that lines the interior of blood vessels?
Firomsa Reply
why are the questions only 3
Chisom Reply
you too can ask
Addo
what is the treatment of herpes simplex virus?
riad Reply
the long bone with two primary center's of ossification for shaft is ________
Aarambam
medulla
Addo
good
Ravi
ha moj ha
Hani
doctor and nurse
Ravi
y 're the questions only 3
Chisom
women are much likely to be pregnant at which stage?
Fatoumatta Reply
There are only six days during any cycle when a woman can get pregnant - the five days leading up to ovulation and the 24 hours after ovulation. This is because sperm can live for up to 5 days in a woman's body, and the ovum lives for only 12-24 hours.
THE
right
Adil
does this apply to women close to menopose
Kuria
what's reason the reason for BP growing ?
Adil
when after they have intercourse
AJ
what is andropause
William Reply
It's the men version of menopause!
Catia
The testosterone levels decrease
Catia
what would happen if the sugar lever drops below the normal level
Marvin Reply
If our blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dL, we may have symptoms, such as feeling tired, weak, or shaky, become confused or drowsy or even lose consciousness and possibly die.
Dhanya
symptoms of hypoglycemia include: shakiness, dizziness, headache, confusion, rapid pulse rate, sweating, Hunger, etc.
EMERIBE
you right
Khubaib
You become dizzy and weak
evans
Is there any way to disable this chat feature or at least mute notifications? Also, does every textbook app from this creator have the chat function?
Atone Reply
I don't think you can disable chat and yes it is on every app
AJ
what is homeostasis
Nikky Reply
what is respiratory
Nikky
Respiratory is breathing
Atone
respiration is an exchange of gases (O2 & CO2) between the body and outside environment.
joey
homeostasis is internal balance.
Ali
Respiratory is system where the body takes in oxygen n releases carbondioxide
Hassan
respiratory system is a system where exhalation and inhalation takes place
Kom
1)inhalation: active diaphragm & external intercoastal muscles 2)exhalation: passive (allow muscle group to relax)
Shoukat
mantaince of body is called homeostasis
Komal
hi komal
Khubaib
how are you komal?
Khubaib
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Komal
hey nikki
Khubaib
hii komal
Rinku
where you from kamal?
Khubaib
nice meet you
Rinku
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Khubaib
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Komal
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what is medical coding
Antony
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Rinku
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Khubaib
I am from dausa,Rajasthan
Rinku
yar hum to pakistan se hain humy baat karny do
Khubaib
hoe r u alll
SARFARAJ
komal jha?
Khubaib
answer me please...What is basic concept or Acidosis?
Khalid
hiii komal
SARFARAJ
al hamd.o.lillah muslim
Khubaib
or aap
Khubaib
Allah ka shukr ha
SARFARAJ
aby tu b india chala ja un ko zarorat ha foji logon ki
Khubaib
beshak
Khubaib
myself Khalid Shabbir.Doctor of Anesthesia from PIMS Hospital.& belongs to Capital IslamAbad(Pakistan).
Khalid
yar sarfraz ap india se kab ay
Khubaib
tell me abt ethmoid bone
Sakshi
bro am all ready indian
SARFARAJ
okkk
SARFARAJ
hii sakshi how are you?
Khubaib
m gd..plz tell me the answer of it..
Sakshi
Face ki he ethmoid bone
Rakesh
ethmoid bone. Irregularly shaped bone anterior to the solenoid. Forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls.
LaKecia
Its unpaired bone of skull that saprate the nasal cavity from the brain it's located at the roof of the nose between the two orbits it's bone is one of the bones that make up the orbit of eye.
SARFARAJ
sphenoid I meant
LaKecia
wrist joint ka dusra name kya he
Rakesh
till me fast my ans
Rakesh
Also included in the ethmoid bone is the crista galli and the cribriform plates. The plates help form the roof of the nasal cavity and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa.
LaKecia
the outer most covering of the brain ( the dura mater) attached to the crista galli and helps secure the brain in the cranial cavity
LaKecia
Sakshi Mishra. I hope that helped!
LaKecia
thnks fo tellng😊
Sakshi
yup
Sakshi
yw
LaKecia
ye kya
Dr
hi
Dr
oh welcome sakshi
Khubaib
synovial joint will have present in wrist
sk
what's the smallest blood vessal in the body?
sk
respiration is the process of inspiration an expiration
Bel
first fall give me ans plz
sk
The protection of internal envirnment from the harm of external envirnmen is called as homeostasis.
Rana
Because stem cells have the unique ability to develop into any cell, stem cell therapy is being considered for treatment of kidney damage. What are your thoughts on stem cell treatment? Give at least three reasons for or against the treatment.
Samira Reply
to know the structure of the human body. to study the region of the human body. to understand the circulation of blood in the human body.
Angelashimakela Reply
what do CNS stand for
Angelashimakela Reply
central nervous system
Dustin
What does that mean
Shafiw
what does what mean
Larita
It means the system of brain and spinal cord! Sensory system of body!
rashid
is it where we find sensory gland?
Angelashimakela
glands are not a part of CNS! but sensory receptors are a part of peripheral nervous system!
rashid
PNS
rashid
👏
Angelashimakela
Ask what u want to?
rashid
structure, function and results
Dustin Reply
the pituitary gland lies in tha
Mohd Reply
tha pituitary lies in the
Mohd
the pituitary gland lies at the base of the brain between the hypothalamus and pineal gland.
nikki
which section of the pituitary gland has most secrations
Ehsanullah
What is the important role of FSH hormone?
Ehsanullah
pituitary gland lies in the sella tursica
Joseph
anterior pituitary has six important hormones
Joseph
The important role of FSH is that in females it stimulates growth and maturation of ova and in males it stimulates spermatogenesis..
Joseph
what is the important role of LH in females and males
Ayomide
the somatotrophs which secrete Somatotropin(Growth hormone) forms 50% of the secretory cells found in the anterior pituitary gland
Ayomide
what makes up of the hair
Ogunbowale Reply
protein
Berek
Keratin.
Joseph
Protein
jen
Keratin protein. It is also in skin and nails and in animals horns and hooves.
nikki
keratin
Charles

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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