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Skeleton

Although bone has long been recognized as a target for hormones, only recently have researchers recognized that the skeleton itself produces at least two hormones. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is produced by bone cells in response to increased blood levels of vitamin D 3 or phosphate. It triggers the kidneys to inhibit the formation of calcitriol from vitamin D 3 and to increase phosphorus excretion. Osteocalcin, produced by osteoblasts, stimulates the pancreatic beta cells to increase insulin production. It also acts on peripheral tissues to increase their sensitivity to insulin and their utilization of glucose.

Adipose tissue

Adipose tissue produces and secretes several hormones involved in lipid metabolism and storage. One important example is leptin    , a protein manufactured by adipose cells that circulates in amounts directly proportional to levels of body fat. Leptin is released in response to food consumption and acts by binding to brain neurons involved in energy intake and expenditure. Binding of leptin produces a feeling of satiety after a meal, thereby reducing appetite. It also appears that the binding of leptin to brain receptors triggers the sympathetic nervous system to regulate bone metabolism, increasing deposition of cortical bone. Adiponectin—another hormone synthesized by adipose cells—appears to reduce cellular insulin resistance and to protect blood vessels from inflammation and atherosclerosis. Its levels are lower in people who are obese, and rise following weight loss.

Skin

The skin functions as an endocrine organ in the production of the inactive form of vitamin D 3 , cholecalciferol. When cholesterol present in the epidermis is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, it is converted to cholecalciferol, which then enters the blood. In the liver, cholecalciferol is converted to an intermediate that travels to the kidneys and is further converted to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D 3 . Vitamin D is important in a variety of physiological processes, including intestinal calcium absorption and immune system function. In some studies, low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased risks of cancer, severe asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets, and in adults, osteomalacia—both of which are characterized by bone deterioration.

Thymus

The thymus    is an organ of the immune system that is larger and more active during infancy and early childhood, and begins to atrophy as we age. Its endocrine function is the production of a group of hormones called thymosins    that contribute to the development and differentiation of T lymphocytes, which are immune cells. Although the role of thymosins is not yet well understood, it is clear that they contribute to the immune response. Thymosins have been found in tissues other than the thymus and have a wide variety of functions, so the thymosins cannot be strictly categorized as thymic hormones.

Liver

The liver is responsible for secreting at least four important hormones or hormone precursors: insulin-like growth factor (somatomedin), angiotensinogen, thrombopoetin, and hepcidin. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is the immediate stimulus for growth in the body, especially of the bones. Angiotensinogen is the precursor to angiotensin, mentioned earlier, which increases blood pressure. Thrombopoetin stimulates the production of the blood’s platelets. Hepcidins block the release of iron from cells in the body, helping to regulate iron homeostasis in our body fluids. The major hormones of these other organs are summarized in [link] .

Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions and Their Major Hormones
Organ Major hormones Effects
Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and Na + concentration
Gastrointestinal tract Gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin Aid digestion of food and buffering of stomach acids
Gastrointestinal tract Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Stimulate beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin
Kidneys Renin Stimulates release of aldosterone
Kidneys Calcitriol Aids in the absorption of Ca 2+
Kidneys Erythropoietin Triggers the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow
Skeleton FGF23 Inhibits production of calcitriol and increases phosphate excretion
Skeleton Osteocalcin Increases insulin production
Adipose tissue Leptin Promotes satiety signals in the brain
Adipose tissue Adiponectin Reduces insulin resistance
Skin Cholecalciferol Modified to form vitamin D
Thymus (and other organs) Thymosins Among other things, aids in the development of T lymphocytes of the immune system
Liver Insulin-like growth factor-1 Stimulates bodily growth
Liver Angiotensinogen Raises blood pressure
Liver Thrombopoetin Causes increase in platelets
Liver Hepcidin Blocks release of iron into body fluids

Chapter review

Some organs have a secondary endocrine function. For example, the walls of the atria of the heart produce the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the gastrointestinal tract produces the hormones gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin, which aid in digestion, and the kidneys produce erythropoietin (EPO), which stimulates the formation of red blood cells. Even bone, adipose tissue, and the skin have secondary endocrine functions.

Questions & Answers

what is the difference between a neuron and nerve?
Tonny Reply
Neurons are specialized cells which are capable of transmitting signals between different parts of the body. Nerve is a bundle of fibers composed of neurons. Therefore, neurons and nerves are closely related.
acquosuah
wow
Andy
what are the first aid procedures
Andy
immediately care to prevent further injury
Vandana
what is a positive and negative feedback and give examples of both positive and negative feedback
esther Reply
Positive feedback is a feedback that tends to magnify its output. An example of positve feedback is the release of oxytocin from the pitutary gland during child birth. Negative feedback regulates a stimulus to cause a opposite effect. An example of this is when you eat your blood sugar rises,which
Camello
is sensed by the nervous system. specialized cells in the pancreas sense the increase and release the hormone insulin.
Camello
merci beaucoup
esther
what then is Pathological anatomy
acquosuah Reply
anatomy study about normal human organ... pathological anatomy study of diseased organ
Aswin
thanks
acquosuah
wow
Morshed
that's are good
Morshed
why oral glucose make insulin response in 1 phase but IV glucose make insulin response in 2 phase?
qwe Reply
what is anatomical position?
Kakande Reply
it's de description of any region or part of the body in specific strance
Andy
the standard anatomical position is standing straight with your hand an feet forward and the neck straight and face facing forward
Lubabah
how many cell do we have in our body
Sawmtei Reply
around 37.2 trillion
Jeremiah
how do you know when a women is lying
Hernandez
go with your gut
Stephanie
what is a positive and negative feedback and give examples of negative and positive feedback
esther Reply
messa I didn't understand this too
Shammy
and would love to know as well
Shammy
what are the various types of white blood cells
Andy Reply
what is cpr in first aid
Andy
various whiteblood cells includes Granulocytes (neutrophils,basophils ana eosinophils) and Agranulocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes)
Waziri
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cpr) is an emergency procedure. Uses chest compressions with artificial ventilation in an effort to preserve brain function until further measures are taken to restore blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Jeremiah
wow thanks alot
Andy
respiration is not just taking in of oxygen and bringing out Co2. that is called INHALATION AND EXHALATION. BUT RESPIRATION IS THE BREAKDOWN OF LARGE MOLECULES OF GLUCOSE OR OTHER SUBSTRATES IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN AND SUBSEQUENT REMOVAL OF WASTE PRODUCT
Osuji Reply
why study anatomy?
esther Reply
to know the detailed functioning of the internay body organs
Jam
we study anatomy to know about the structure of the organs which in turn help to study physiology which is the knowledge related to function of the vital organ,and when we know the normal functionality we can understand the abnormalities in that organ,and the study of disease is called pathology
Lubabah
why is it so hard to know the spelling and words
Sawmtei
they were made so that only the best and thr brightest would understand.
Senen
thank you
esther
to know the internal structure of the human body and how it function
Jaafar
whats antonmy
Jaan Reply
the study of structure and function of internal body parts
Jam
is a branch of biology which describes the structures of the body and relationship from one part to another
esther
I believe it is the scientific study of body structures that are both macro and micro.
acquosuah
wat the question is tis ! without knowing tis simple thing.. y didn't install tis app ..
Aswin
what is anatomy and physiology
mwitwa Reply
Anatomy is the study of structures of the body
Zunehri
Physiology the study functions of the body
Zunehri
anatomy is study of structure of body nd physiology is study of function of body.
PRIYANKA
anatomy is the study of internal body structures and physiology is the functioning of these structures in the body
Jam
what is lungs
Shipon Reply
it an organ found in our thoracic cavity
Richard
lungs are spongy organs where our respiration takesplace
Maryama
Lungs is a spongy organs located in the chest , is an a primary organs of respiration in human body and other Animals
Zunehri
lungs thorex me present hote hai ye organ hai and gas exchange (o2,co2 exchange)inka inka function hai.
PRIYANKA
lungs ka function hai
OM
pls am a student I don't know
Mavis
main function is respiration
faheem
respiration is the taking ing of oxygen by the body tissues and the removal of carbondioxide from the body tissues
Jam
what is heart beat,?
Naqeeb Reply
heart beat is the process briting
Mavis
what functions of heart
Muthu Reply
To circulate the blood
Arshad
it pump blood to the lungs
Laura
very twiest
Shipon

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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