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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the anatomical features of a bone
  • Define and list examples of bone markings
  • Describe the histology of bone tissue
  • Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone
  • Identify the structures that compose compact and spongy bone
  • Describe how bones are nourished and innervated

Bone tissue (osseous tissue) differs greatly from other tissues in the body. Bone is hard and many of its functions depend on that characteristic hardness. Later discussions in this chapter will show that bone is also dynamic in that its shape adjusts to accommodate stresses. This section will examine the gross anatomy of bone first and then move on to its histology.

Gross anatomy of bone

The structure of a long bone allows for the best visualization of all of the parts of a bone ( [link] ). A long bone has two parts: the diaphysis    and the epiphysis    . The diaphysis is the tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone. The hollow region in the diaphysis is called the medullary cavity    , which is filled with yellow marrow. The walls of the diaphysis are composed of dense and hard compact bone    .

Anatomy of a long bone

This illustration depicts an anterior view of the right femur, or thigh bone. The inferior end that connects to the knee is at the bottom of the diagram and the superior end that connects to the hip is at the top of the diagram. The bottom end of the bone contains a smaller lateral bulge and a larger medial bulge. A blue articular cartilage covers the inner half of each bulge as well as the small trench that runs between the bulges. This area of the inferior end of the bone is labeled the distal epiphysis. Above the distal epiphysis is the metaphysis, where the bone tapers from the wide epiphysis into the relatively thin shaft. The entire length of the shaft is the diaphysis. The superior half of the femur is cut away to show its internal contents. The bone is covered with an outer translucent sheet called the periosteum. At the midpoint of the diaphysis, a nutrient artery travels through the periosteum and into the inner layers of the bone. The periosteum surrounds a white cylinder of solid bone labeled compact bone. The cavity at the center of the compact bone is called the medullary cavity. The inner layer of the compact bone that lines the medullary cavity is called the endosteum. Within the diaphysis, the medullary cavity contains a cylinder of yellow bone marrow that is penetrated by the nutrient artery. The superior end of the femur is also connected to the diaphysis by a metaphysis. In this upper metaphysis, the bone gradually widens between the diaphysis and the proximal epiphysis. The proximal epiphysis of the femur is roughly hexagonal in shape. However, the upper right side of the hexagon has a large, protruding knob. The femur connects and rotates within the hip socket at this knob. The knob is covered with a blue colored articular cartilage. The internal anatomy of the upper metaphysis and proximal epiphysis are revealed. The medullary cavity in these regions is filled with the mesh like spongy bone. Red bone marrow occupies the many cavities within the spongy bone. There is a clear, white line separating the spongy bone of the upper metaphysis with that of the proximal epiphysis. This line is labeled the epiphyseal line.
A typical long bone shows the gross anatomical characteristics of bone.

The wider section at each end of the bone is called the epiphysis (plural = epiphyses), which is filled with spongy bone. Red marrow fills the spaces in the spongy bone. Each epiphysis meets the diaphysis at the metaphysis, the narrow area that contains the epiphyseal plate    (growth plate), a layer of hyaline (transparent) cartilage in a growing bone. When the bone stops growing in early adulthood (approximately 18–21 years), the cartilage is replaced by osseous tissue and the epiphyseal plate becomes an epiphyseal line.

The medullary cavity has a delicate membranous lining called the endosteum    (end- = “inside”; oste- = “bone”), where bone growth, repair, and remodeling occur. The outer surface of the bone is covered with a fibrous membrane called the periosteum    (peri - = “around” or “surrounding”). The periosteum contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that nourish compact bone. Tendons and ligaments also attach to bones at the periosteum. The periosteum covers the entire outer surface except where the epiphyses meet other bones to form joints ( [link] ). In this region, the epiphyses are covered with articular cartilage    , a thin layer of cartilage that reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber.

Periosteum and endosteum

The top of this illustration shows an anterior view of the proximal end of the femur. The top image has two zoom in boxes. The left box is situated on the border between the diaphysis and the metaphysis. Its callout magnifies the periosteum on the right side of the femur. The view shows that the periosteum contains an outer fibrous layer composed of yellow fibers. The inner layer of the periosteum is called the cellular layer, which is composed of irregularly shaped cells. The cellular layer gradually shrinks in width as it transitions from the metaphysis to the diaphysis. A small blood vessel runs through both layers and enters the bone. The right zoom in box magnifies the endosteum on the left side of the bone. The box is situated just inferior to the border between the diaphysis and the metaphysic. It calls out the inner edge of the compact bone layer. The magnified view shows concentric circles of dark colored bone matrix. Between the circles are small cavities containing orange, diamond-shaped cells labeled osteocytes. The left edge of the bone matrix is lined with a single layer of flattened cells called the endosteum. There is a large cell, labeled an osteoclast, between two of the endosteum cells. The osteoclast is cutting a depression into the bony matrix under the endosteum. At another part of the endosteum, three smaller osteoblasts are secreting a blue substance that builds up the outermost layer of the bony matrix.
The periosteum forms the outer surface of bone, and the endosteum lines the medullary cavity.

Flat bones, like those of the cranium, consist of a layer of diploë    (spongy bone), lined on either side by a layer of compact bone ( [link] ). The two layers of compact bone and the interior spongy bone work together to protect the internal organs. If the outer layer of a cranial bone fractures, the brain is still protected by the intact inner layer.

Anatomy of a flat bone

This illustration shows a cross section of a cranial bone, constructed somewhat like a sandwich. The topmost and bottommost layers are the thin, translucent, periosteum. The upper and lower periosteum cover an upper and lower layer of compact bone, respectively. The compact bone is solid, with each layer occupying about one tenth of the thickness of the cranial bone. The majority of the cross section is occupied by the spongy bone, or diploe, sandwiched between the upper and lower compact bone. The spongy bone contains many crisscrossing threads of bone. Dark air spaces occur between the threads, giving the bone a porous appearance, much like that of a sponge or Swiss cheese.
This cross-section of a flat bone shows the spongy bone (diploë) lined on either side by a layer of compact bone.

Questions & Answers

why the heart is protected with that sac
Joshua Reply
To prevent collision with the lungs, lubricates the heart, protects the heart from infection in the event a peripheral organ is effected, and stabilizes the heart within the mediastinum.
Jeremiah
This app should be updated too much as there is very little information for some topics.I hope you will consider my information....
aman Reply
adenohypophysis is made up of what type of cells and what is the name of those cells?
Mannu Reply
whatpassesthroughmaleovale
armstrong Reply
motor root of the trigeminal nerve
Vandana
what is the nervous system about
Joshua
what passes through foramen ovale?
Farah Reply
what are the organelles of a cell
Amina Reply
muscular system
Vandana
nucleus ribosome Golgi body call membrane cytoplasm
Sabina
these are the cellular components that functions to provide energy,remove waste and cell division
Waziri
Organelles of the cell are: Mitochondria,Ribosome,golgi apparatus, nucleus, secretory granules, nuclear e t c
Khadijah
what are local hormones
Richard
Local hormones are hormones that effect the cell that released them or cells near the releasing cell and they do not circulate within the blood stream.
Jeremiah
the trachea bifurcated into how many branches on the right lung
barbie
three lobes
Richard
Explain the normal flow of blood.
Shikha
how can we maintain the internal living things
Choolwe Reply
how many seconds does a human will stop if you sneeze
Kharl Reply
idk
Erika
1 sec not specific
Jane
1_3seconds
Mannu
physiology of vision
Sudipta Reply
Can pure water become gel like?
ovie Reply
No
Abdulazeez
what is Homeostasis
Laura Reply
It is the ability of an organism to co ordinate it's internal environment so as to achieve balance in all areas
ovie
what is anatomy
Sandra Reply
what is physiology
Sandra
The study of how the body works
Joseph
the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of leaving organisms and their parts including all physical and chemical processes
Maria
the study of human body . phicically and chemically it's called anotomy physiology
Raj
the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms
Salman
which vein do we inject to give infusions
Belinda
it is the scientific study of the body structure
Choolwe
What Choolwe Muselitata said is the definition of anatomy
KWAKU
Physiology can also be described as the way in which a living organism or bodily part functions
KWAKU
Anotomy is the science which we humen body of structure and function know as the anotomy
Aman
study of the body funtion and structure
Kaoum
functional study of the body
Mosele
it is the study about the functions of body organs
Mannu
what are the vital sign procedure
jeniffer Reply
You start the TPR then BP after explaining the procedure to the patient and your requirements ready.
Dauda
which type of vein to you inject to give infusions?
Belinda
*do
Belinda
how long do u take radial pulse
Flavian Reply
1 minute
Mannu
You can take it for 15 seconds , the number you got you multiply wth 2
Likius
but in the aspect of the multiplying that isn't right
Sabina
radial pulse kya hai?
OM
?
OM
for more accurate values you must do the 1 minute
Jane
1 minute.
Andrew
60 seconds
Richard
1 minute
Kaoum
yes @sabina
Mannu
What is homeostasis
Winter Reply
Homeostasis is the state of relative stability of the body's environment
Laura
what are fluids
Laura
fluid is a substance that has no fixed shape and yield easily to external pressure
Laura
Difference between hemostasis and homeostasis
Abdulazeez
Hemostasis is blocking or stopping blood flow from a damaged blood vessel by coagulation of that vessel or obstructing it.
Jeremiah
Homeostasis is a balanced state. An equilibrium. The body does this by regulating itself by using hormones and neurotransmitters to keep chemicals balanced within the body.
Jeremiah
Examples of site of homeostasis
Abdulazeez
For example, to much calcium in the blood would stimulate the release of calcitonin from the thyroid gland. Calcitonin will decrease calcium levels by depositing it into the skeleton. This is known as bone deposition, a homeostatic mechanism. Parathyroid hormone is the opposite to calcitonin.
Jeremiah
There are a lot of homeostatic mechanisms in the body. Insulin and glucagon is another one. These two regulate glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. High glucose levels would cause insulin from the pancreas beta cells. Insulin lowers blood sugar. Glucagon increases blood sugar
Jeremiah

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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