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Structure of adenosine triphosphate (atp)

This figure shows the structure of ATP.

When a phosphate group is cleaved from ATP, the products are adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (P i ). This hydrolysis reaction can be written:

ATP + H 2  ADP + P i  + energy

Removal of a second phosphate leaves adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and two phosphate groups. Again, these reactions also liberate the energy that had been stored in the phosphate-phosphate bonds. They are reversible, too, as when ADP undergoes phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to an organic compound, in this case, resulting in ATP. In such cases, the same level of energy that had been released during hydrolysis must be reinvested to power dehydration synthesis.

Cells can also transfer a phosphate group from ATP to another organic compound. For example, when glucose first enters a cell, a phosphate group is transferred from ATP, forming glucose phosphate (C 6 H 12 O 6 —P) and ADP. Once glucose is phosphorylated in this way, it can be stored as glycogen or metabolized for immediate energy.

Chapter review

Organic compounds essential to human functioning include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. These compounds are said to be organic because they contain both carbon and hydrogen. Carbon atoms in organic compounds readily share electrons with hydrogen and other atoms, usually oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen. Carbon atoms also may bond with one or more functional groups such as carboxyls, hydroxyls, aminos, or phosphates. Monomers are single units of organic compounds. They bond by dehydration synthesis to form polymers, which can in turn be broken by hydrolysis.

Carbohydrate compounds provide essential body fuel. Their structural forms include monosaccharides such as glucose, disaccharides such as lactose, and polysaccharides, including starches (polymers of glucose), glycogen (the storage form of glucose), and fiber. All body cells can use glucose for fuel. It is converted via an oxidation-reduction reaction to ATP.

Lipids are hydrophobic compounds that provide body fuel and are important components of many biological compounds. Triglycerides are the most abundant lipid in the body, and are composed of a glycerol backbone attached to three fatty acid chains. Phospholipids are compounds composed of a diglyceride with a phosphate group attached at the molecule’s head. The result is a molecule with polar and nonpolar regions. Steroids are lipids formed of four hydrocarbon rings. The most important is cholesterol. Prostaglandins are signaling molecules derived from unsaturated fatty acids.

Proteins are critical components of all body tissues. They are made up of monomers called amino acids, which contain nitrogen, joined by peptide bonds. Protein shape is critical to its function. Most body proteins are globular. An example is enzymes, which catalyze chemical reactions.

Nucleotides are compounds with three building blocks: one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids that function in protein synthesis. ATP is the body’s fundamental molecule of energy transfer. Removal or addition of phosphates releases or invests energy.

Watch this video to observe the formation of a disaccharide. What happens when water encounters a glycosidic bond?

The water hydrolyses, or breaks, the glycosidic bond, forming two monosaccharides.

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Questions & Answers

what are the different types of respiratory system
Tejal Reply
how can I do practice question
takesha Reply
through quetion answer format
what type of gland is the liver?
A solid gland? Is that what you meant? Or u could say it's a digestive gland but also filtrates blood, among other things. So it kinda fits many roles. Unless I'm wrong, but feel free to correct me if I am.
what is the consequence of performing CPR on a functioning heart.
Pyefa Reply
The central part of the body
Alex Reply
i thought a cell is the fuctional unit of an orgarnism.
mutesi Reply
what is the name for inflammation of middle ear?
otitis media
Describe an experiment to verify the law of constant composition
Ssekamatte Reply
amazing the exprement is hard to set up can you please help us describe it for us?
Explain the major features and properties of the cell membrane
Robina Reply
contants ofa lipid bilayers w the enbedded proteins it is faction of the cell membaren
it is made up of protein,fat and a small portion of carbohydrates. it is semipermeable but impermeable to uncharged water molecules.
What are blood vessels of will's circle
Madu Reply
vertebral arteries and cerebral arteries
What are sutures of cranial cavity ?
Madu Reply
there are four. the coronal, sagittal, squamous and lambhoidal sutured
structure of a cell
pelvic cavity contents?
unimarwat Reply
ilium ,ischium ,pubis
but that is the three parts of the hip bone
Describe the muscular skeletal system in terms of definition.. Skeleton Apendicular skeleton Axial skeleton Joints
Sherrine Reply
the basic framework of body made and cartilage is called skeleton skeleton which form limbs is called appendicular skeleton skeleton which form main axis of body is called axial skeleton the points at two or more bones meets is called joints
write short notes on ligaments,curves and moverment of vertebral column.
mutesi Reply
cranial nerves notes
what is the Analysis
what is Anatomy
it's a organs and bouns reading
Cutting Up
Cutting Up
to dissect
what usually cause blood pressurae
Abdullateef Reply
too much salt in the diet
older age
Even family history of high blood pressure
too much salt in the diet
stress is the leading factor
smoking and too much alcohol consumption
obesity can also cause hypertension
high temperature of the body high salt of the body
how does the temperature affect the blood pressure?
What sex.?
i mearnt gender,there's increased blood pressure in male than female
guys, read the question, involuntary pumping of heart causes the blood pressure in the arteries, he has not asked about high or low BP.

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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