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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the two basic physiological consequences of transfusion of incompatible blood
  • Compare and contrast ABO and Rh blood groups
  • Identify which blood groups may be safely transfused into patients with different ABO types
  • Discuss the pathophysiology of hemolytic disease of the newborn

Blood transfusions in humans were risky procedures until the discovery of the major human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian biologist and physician, in 1900. Until that point, physicians did not understand that death sometimes followed blood transfusions, when the type of donor blood infused into the patient was incompatible with the patient’s own blood. Blood groups are determined by the presence or absence of specific marker molecules on the plasma membranes of erythrocytes. With their discovery, it became possible for the first time to match patient-donor blood types and prevent transfusion reactions and deaths.

Antigens, antibodies, and transfusion reactions

Antigens are substances that the body does not recognize as belonging to the “self” and that therefore trigger a defensive response from the leukocytes of the immune system. (Seek more content for additional information on immunity.) Here, we will focus on the role of immunity in blood transfusion reactions. With RBCs in particular, you may see the antigens referred to as isoantigens or agglutinogens (surface antigens) and the antibodies referred to as isoantibodies or agglutinins. In this chapter, we will use the more common terms antigens and antibodies.

Antigens are generally large proteins, but may include other classes of organic molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Following an infusion of incompatible blood, erythrocytes with foreign antigens appear in the bloodstream and trigger an immune response. Proteins called antibodies (immunoglobulins), which are produced by certain B lymphocytes called plasma cells, attach to the antigens on the plasma membranes of the infused erythrocytes and cause them to adhere to one another.

  • Because the arms of the Y-shaped antibodies attach randomly to more than one nonself erythrocyte surface, they form clumps of erythrocytes. This process is called agglutination    .
  • The clumps of erythrocytes block small blood vessels throughout the body, depriving tissues of oxygen and nutrients.
  • As the erythrocyte clumps are degraded, in a process called hemolysis    , their hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream. This hemoglobin travels to the kidneys, which are responsible for filtration of the blood. However, the load of hemoglobin released can easily overwhelm the kidney’s capacity to clear it, and the patient can quickly develop kidney failure.

More than 50 antigens have been identified on erythrocyte membranes, but the most significant in terms of their potential harm to patients are classified in two groups: the ABO blood group and the Rh blood group.

The abo blood group

Although the ABO blood group    name consists of three letters, ABO blood typing designates the presence or absence of just two antigens, A and B. Both are glycoproteins. People whose erythrocytes have A antigens on their erythrocyte membrane surfaces are designated blood type A, and those whose erythrocytes have B antigens are blood type B. People can also have both A and B antigens on their erythrocytes, in which case they are blood type AB. People with neither A nor B antigens are designated blood type O. ABO blood types are genetically determined.

Questions & Answers

define cell injuries
Siva Reply
it is defined as any damage to structural and functional behaviour of cell...and is not performing appropriately.
what is the proximity of uterus or womb and kidney
Gebregiorgis Reply
answer is needed
hirsi dahir
war hye
i dont know
im just new in here.
im a freshmen student
ok Erik welcome
Am Amina
say ?
proximity of womb that is uterus is urinary bladder..bowel loop(means intestinal loop)..and rectum and that if kidney is..stomach,ureter,spleen in left, duodenum,quadratus lumborum muscle,psoas muscle,ribs(6,7,8),suprarenal gland,jejunum,colic flexure on right,.
hey hlo...m new here..yogesh Jindal🤗🤗guys listen proximity is same the structure lying on it's surfaces..or around it...so all must reply...as each new nd all must know structure around organs...nd vessels too
okz thanks bro me too new .....u all are unknow for me🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔
of course m unknown to all
Maine to ye names hi first tym sune hai
can i ask a question kn you guys?
yes Erik came on we here to answer any questions posted
give me tips about csir net
what do you mean csir net
net conducted by csir
I don't know yet , is there somebody understand what he said
can you give me atleast 20 anatomical terminologies that is not common ? its my assignment in my major.
are you still there?
im asking
ow Erik I learned medical terminology course past years in my University so I Know alot of words in my mind but I can't destinguash comon words and non comon
lower abdomen
can you help me?
for what
yellow marrow has been identified as
Raychelle Reply
Which of the following accurately describe external resipration
Gwendolyn Reply
from the heart to the lungs
I think it's not outside organ of respiratory all respiratory organ are inside of human body
diffusion of CO2 and oxygen at a pulmonary capillary surrounding an alveolar sac.
In other words, from the external environment to the lungs (alveoli) then to the pulmonary capillary then to the heart. So this is a stage of inhalation. inhale = external respiration.
What kind of discussion
horyaal Reply
what is the function of the placenta
Nchimunya Reply
The placenta acts to provide oxygen and nutrientsto the fetus, whilst removing carbon dioxide and other waste products.
Also it's the barrier through which the mother is connected to the fetus.
I want to discuss... atherosclerosis.., everything about it, about to treatment n prevention at age 50 +
Please participate in discussion
ok let's discuss now
first define the word artherosclerosis
a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of fatty material on their inner walls.
hardening of the arteries, due to fats..
Q = which type of fat utilized for this.., I.e LDL, HDL, TG, VLDL...?
Atherosclerosis is a condition of deposition of plaque inside the artries
Plaque include such as fat, chalestrol, calcium etc
Thank you kumar...., is there any way that we can protect these plaques without any medicines., I. e exercises n food stuffs
go to the gym
what is chylomicrons?
how can plaque buildup in The angina or vessels ?
Atherosclerosis is a condition of deposition of plaque inside the artries
atherosclerosis can also be caused by tortuousness of arteries with old age as contributing factor.
You tube Prof Fink...he is an amazing lecturer and does a brilliant job on arteriosclerosis
what are cell
Chigozie Reply
The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane. 
cell is the structural and functional basic unit of life
So every living thing was Created From a Cell
from a fusion of two cells , the sperm and the egg
What is the only bone that doesn't have any articulation?
that magical fusion of cells
why body immune system attack and destroy the body own cell during type 1 diabetes?
Sanamacha Reply
It's an autoimmune disease... targeting the pancreas
what are the three genetic defects of pregnancy?
Belinda Reply
structure of fallopian tubes
Akash Reply
what z the role played by the transport system
zinitha Reply
how fats are digested in the human body
Nabukwasi Reply
Fat digestion begins in the stomach but some argue in that it starts in the mouth. Reason is because the sublingual gland secretes an enzyme called lingual lipase. However, this enzyme is not activated until it comes into contact with gastric fluids (HCl). In the stomach, HCl breaks down the lipid..
due to body heat
into smaller molecules. Going from a triglyceride and a fatty acid to a monoglyceride and a a fatty acid no longer bound to one another. This is known as lipolysis.
After lipolysis in the stomach from gastric and lingual lipase, an acidic chyme is produced after stomach churning the bolus. The chyme exits the stomach at the pyloric sphincter and enters the first section of the small intestine known as the duodenum.
in the duodenum. An alkaline mucus from goblet cells neutralizes the acidic chyme to prevent acid burns. After that, the pancreas and gallbladder secrete a number of enzymes to continue lipolysis. Bile from the gallbladder enters the duodenum via common bile duct. The acinar cells in the pancreas...
secretes pancreatic lipase after enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum secrete a stimulator hormone called CCK. Cck stimulates bile synthesis and secretion as well as pancreatic lipase.
Bile emuslifies the lipid, allowing the lipases to continue lipolysis
this breakdown continues until it reaches the jejunum of the small intestines. At this point, the lipid has been broken down small enough to absorbed into the blood stream. So villi in the jejunum, absorb the contents.
ileum, the last small intestine region, absorbs anything that wasn't absorbed previously. Like minerals, vitamins, bile salts, water soluble material. Villi here complete that task. Fatty acid and glycerol however, are absorbed by lacteals. small lymph vessels. And are transported to the liver.
That concludes lipid digestion. Anything else that remains is deficated after it travels through the large intestines.
parents with blood group AB & 0,,,what will b the blood group of their offspring
what are the different branches of anatomy
hopefully that helped.
which ion is low of blood level?
Ezra Reply
what is coagulation?
feng Reply
liquid turning to solid... blood clots.
coagulation : liquid blood into blood clots caused with a coagulant.
when the blood turn from liquid form to solid
it said to coagulate by the action of active plasma protein called *fibrin*
I.e liquid inform of blood when to solid
it is the process by which blood becomes more viscous or becomes thick
cloting of blood cells
clot of blood
the process of forming semi solid lumps in a liquid
conversion of blood to solid state
semi solid., rather than solid form
what is pivot functioned
to less thefriction
how to calculate the micrograph
Ampong Reply

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