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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Square a binomial using the Binomial Squares Pattern
  • Multiply conjugates using the Product of Conjugates Pattern
  • Recognize and use the appropriate special product pattern

Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.

  1. Simplify: 9 2 ( −9 ) 2 9 2 .
    If you missed this problem, review [link] .

Square a binomial using the binomial squares pattern

Mathematicians like to look for patterns that will make their work easier. A good example of this is squaring binomials. While you can always get the product by writing the binomial    twice and using the methods of the last section, there is less work to do if you learn to use a pattern.

Let’s start by looking at ( x + 9 ) 2 . What does this mean? ( x + 9 ) 2 It means to multiply ( x + 9 ) by itself. ( x + 9 ) ( x + 9 ) Then, using FOIL, we get: x 2 + 9 x + 9 x + 81 Combining like terms gives: x 2 + 18 x + 81 Here’s another one: ( y 7 ) 2 Multiply ( y 7 ) by itself. ( y 7 ) ( y 7 ) Using FOIL, we get: y 2 7 y 7 y + 49 And combining like terms: y 2 14 y + 49 And one more: ( 2 x + 3 ) 2 Multiply. ( 2 x + 3 ) ( 2 x + 3 ) Use FOIL: 4 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x + 9 Combine like terms. 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

Look at these results. Do you see any patterns?

What about the number of terms? In each example we squared a binomial and the result was a trinomial    .

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + ____ + ____

Now look at the first term in each result. Where did it come from?

This figure has three columns. The first column contains the expression x plus 9, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of x plus 9 and x plus 9. Below this is x squared plus 9x plus 9x plus 81. Below this is x squared plus 18x plus 81. The second column contains the expression y minus 7, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of y minus 7 and y minus 7. Below this is y squared minus 7y minus 7y plus 49. Below this is the expression y squared minus 14y plus 49. The third column contains the expression 2x plus 3, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of 2x plus 3 and 2x plus 3. Below this is 4x squared plus 6x plus 6x plus 9. Below this is 4x squared plus 12x plus 9.

The first term is the product of the first terms of each binomial. Since the binomials are identical, it is just the square of the first term!

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + ____ + ____

To get the first term of the product, square the first term .

Where did the last term come from? Look at the examples and find the pattern.

The last term is the product of the last terms, which is the square of the last term.

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + ____ + b 2

To get the last term of the product, square the last term .

Finally, look at the middle term . Notice it came from adding the “outer” and the “inner” terms—which are both the same! So the middle term is double the product of the two terms of the binomial.

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + 2 a b + ____ ( a b ) 2 = ____ 2 a b + ____

To get the middle term of the product, multiply the terms and double their product .

Putting it all together:

Binomial squares pattern

If a and b are real numbers,

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2 a b + b 2 ( a b ) 2 = a 2 2 a b + b 2
No Alt Text

To square a binomial:

  • square the first term
  • square the last term
  • double their product

A number example helps verify the pattern.

( 10 + 4 ) 2 Square the first term. 10 2 + ___ + ___ Square the last term. 10 2 + ___ + 4 2 Double their product. 10 2 + 2 · 10 · 4 + 4 2 Simplify. 100 + 80 + 16 Simplify. 196

To multiply ( 10 + 4 ) 2 usually you’d follow the Order of Operations.

( 10 + 4 ) 2 ( 14 ) 2 196

The pattern works!

Multiply: ( x + 5 ) 2 .

Solution

x plus 5, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Square the first term. x squared plus blank plus blank. Above the expression is the general form a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared.
Square the last term. x squared plus blank plus 5 squared.
Double the product. x squared plus 2 times x times 5 plus 5 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. x squared plus 10 x plus 25.

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Multiply: ( x + 9 ) 2 .

x 2 + 18 x + 81

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Multiply: ( y + 11 ) 2 .

y 2 + 22 y + 121

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Multiply: ( y 3 ) 2 .

Solution

y minus 3, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a minus b, in parentheses, squared.
Square the first term. y squared minus blank plus blank. Above the expression is the general form a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared.
Square the last term. y squared minus blank plus 3 squared.
Double the product. y squared minus y times y times 3 plus 3 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. y squared minus 6 y plus 9.

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Multiply: ( x 9 ) 2 .

x 2 18 x + 81

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Multiply: ( p 13 ) 2 .

p 2 26 p + 169

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Multiply: ( 4 x + 6 ) 2 .

Solution

4 x plus 6, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Use the pattern. 4 x squared plus 2 times 4 x times 6 plus 6 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. 16 x squared plus 48 x plus 36.

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Multiply: ( 6 x + 3 ) 2 .

36 x 2 + 36 x + 9

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Multiply: ( 4 x + 9 ) 2 .

16 x 2 + 72 x + 81

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Multiply: ( 2 x 3 y ) 2 .

Solution

contains 2 x minus 3 y, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Use the pattern. 2 x squared minus 2 times 2 x times 3 y plus 3 y squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared minus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. 4 x squared minus 12 x y plus 9 y squared.

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Multiply: ( 2 c d ) 2 .

4 c 2 4 c d + d 2

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Multiply: ( 4 x 5 y ) 2 .

16 x 2 40 x y + 25 y 2

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Questions & Answers

-65r to the 4th power-50r cubed-15r squared+8r+23 ÷ 5r
WENDY Reply
write in this form a/b answer should be in the simplest form 5%
August Reply
convert to decimal 9/11
August
Equation in the form of a pending point y+2=1/6(×-4)
Jose Reply
write in simplest form 3 4/2
August
definition of quadratic formula
Ahmed Reply
From Google: The quadratic formula, , is used in algebra to solve quadratic equations (polynomial equations of the second degree). The general form of a quadratic equation is , where x represents a variable, and a, b, and c are constants, with . A quadratic equation has two solutions, called roots.
Melissa
what is the answer of w-2.6=7.55
What Reply
10.15
Michael
w = 10.15 You add 2.6 to both sides and then solve for w (-2.6 zeros out on the left and leaves you with w= 7.55 + 2.6)
Korin
Nataly is considering two job offers. The first job would pay her $83,000 per year. The second would pay her $66,500 plus 15% of her total sales. What would her total sales need to be for her salary on the second offer be higher than the first?
Mckenzie Reply
x > $110,000
bruce
greater than $110,000
Michael
Estelle is making 30 pounds of fruit salad from strawberries and blueberries. Strawberries cost $1.80 per pound, and blueberries cost $4.50 per pound. If Estelle wants the fruit salad to cost her $2.52 per pound, how many pounds of each berry should she use?
nawal Reply
$1.38 worth of strawberries + $1.14 worth of blueberries which= $2.52
Leitha
how
Zaione
is it right😊
Leitha
lol maybe
Robinson
8 pound of blueberries and 22 pounds of strawberries
Melissa
8 pounds x 4.5 = 36 22 pounds x 1.80 = 39.60 36 + 39.60 = 75.60 75.60 / 30 = average 2.52 per pound
Melissa
8 pounds x 4.5 equal 36 22 pounds x 1.80 equal 39.60 36 + 39.60 equal 75.60 75.60 / 30 equal average 2.52 per pound
Melissa
hmmmm...... ?
Robinson
8 pounds x 4.5 = 36 22 pounds x 1.80 = 39.60 36 + 39.60 = 75.60 75.60 / 30 = average 2.52 per pound
Melissa
The question asks how many pounds of each in order for her to have an average cost of $2.52. She needs 30 lb in all so 30 pounds times $2.52 equals $75.60. that's how much money she is spending on the fruit. That means she would need 8 pounds of blueberries and 22 lbs of strawberries to equal 75.60
Melissa
good
Robinson
👍
Leitha
thanks Melissa.
Leitha
nawal let's do another😊
Leitha
we can't use emojis...I see now
Leitha
Sorry for the multi post. My phone glitches.
Melissa
Vina has $4.70 in quarters, dimes and nickels in her purse. She has eight more dimes than quarters and six more nickels than quarters. How many of each coin does she have?
Mckenzie Reply
10 quarters 16 dimes 12 nickels
Leitha
A private jet can fly 1,210 miles against a 25 mph headwind in the same amount of time it can fly 1,694 miles with a 25 mph tailwind. Find the speed of the jet.
Crispy Reply
wtf. is a tail wind or headwind?
Robert
48 miles per hour with headwind and 68 miles per hour with tailwind
Leitha
average speed is 58 mph
Leitha
Into the wind (headwind), 125 mph; with wind (tailwind), 175 mph. Use time (t) = distance (d) ÷ rate (r). since t is equal both problems, then 1210/(x-25) = 1694/(×+25). solve for x gives x=150.
bruce
the jet will fly 9.68 hours to cover either distance
bruce
Riley is planning to plant a lawn in his yard. He will need 9 pounds of grass seed. He wants to mix Bermuda seed that costs $4.80 per pound with Fescue seed that costs $3.50 per pound. How much of each seed should he buy so that the overall cost will be $4.02 per pound?
Vonna Reply
33.336
Robinson
Amber wants to put tiles on the backsplash of her kitchen counters. She will need 36 square feet of tiles. She will use basic tiles that cost $8 per square foot and decorator tiles that cost $20 per square foot. How many square feet of each tile should she use so that the overall cost of the backsplash will be $10 per square foot?
Imaan Reply
Ivan has $8.75 in nickels and quarters in his desk drawer. The number of nickels is twice the number of quarters. How many coins of each type does he have?
mikayla Reply
2q=n ((2q).05) + ((q).25) = 8.75 .1q + .25q = 8.75 .35q = 8.75 q = 25 quarters 2(q) 2 (25) = 50 nickles Answer check 25 x .25 = 6.25 50 x .05 = 2.50 6.25 + 2.50 = 8.75
Melissa
John has $175 in $5 and $10 bills in his drawer. The number of $5 bills is three times the number of $10 bills. How many of each are in the drawer?
mikayla Reply
7-$10 21-$5
Robert
Enrique borrowed $23,500 to buy a car. He pays his uncle 2% interest on the $4,500 he borrowed from him, and he pays the bank 11.5% interest on the rest. What average interest rate does he pay on the total $23,500? (Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a percent.)
Parker Reply
Two sisters like to compete on their bike rides. Tamara can go 4 mph faster than her sister, Samantha. If it takes Samantha 1 hour longer than Tamara to go 80 miles, how fast can Samantha ride her bike?
Markeice Reply
8mph
michele
16mph
Robert
3.8 mph
Ped
16 goes into 80 5times while 20 goes into 80 4times and is 4mph faster
Robert
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. Jan 18, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12116/1.2
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