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Kenneth currently sells suits for company A at a salary of $22,000 plus a $10 commission for each suit sold. Company B offers him a position with a salary of $28,000 plus a $4 commission for each suit sold. How many suits would Kenneth need to sell for the options to be equal?

Kenneth would need to sell 1,000 suits.

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Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with solving systems of equations by substitution.

Key concepts

  • Solve a system of equations by substitution
    1. Solve one of the equations for either variable.
    2. Substitute the expression from Step 1 into the other equation.
    3. Solve the resulting equation.
    4. Substitute the solution in Step 3 into one of the original equations to find the other variable.
    5. Write the solution as an ordered pair.
    6. Check that the ordered pair is a solution to both original equations.

Practice makes perfect

Solve a System of Equations by Substitution

In the following exercises, solve the systems of equations by substitution.

{ 2 x + y = −4 3 x 2 y = −6

( −2 , 0 )

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{ 2 x + y = −2 3 x y = 7

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{ x 2 y = −5 2 x 3 y = −4

( 7 , 6 )

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{ x 3 y = −9 2 x + 5 y = 4

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{ 5 x 2 y = −6 y = 3 x + 3

( 0 , 3 )

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{ −2 x + 2 y = 6 y = −3 x + 1

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{ 2 x + 3 y = 3 y = x + 3

( 6 , −3 )

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{ 2 x + 5 y = −14 y = −2 x + 2

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{ 2 x + 5 y = 1 y = 1 3 x 2

( 3 , −1 )

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{ 3 x + 4 y = 1 y = 2 5 x + 2

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{ 3 x 2 y = 6 y = 2 3 x + 2

( 6 , 6 )

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{ −3 x 5 y = 3 y = 1 2 x 5

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{ 2 x + y = 10 x + y = −5

( 5 , 0 )

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{ −2 x + y = 10 x + 2 y = 16

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{ 3 x + y = 1 −4 x + y = 15

( −2 , 7 )

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{ x + y = 0 2 x + 3 y = −4

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{ x + 3 y = 1 3 x + 5 y = −5

( −5 , 2 )

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{ x + 2 y = −1 2 x + 3 y = 1

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{ 2 x + y = 5 x 2 y = −15

( −1 , 7 )

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{ 4 x + y = 10 x 2 y = −20

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{ y = −2 x 1 y = 1 3 x + 4

( −3 , 5 )

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{ y = x 6 y = 3 2 x + 4

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{ y = 2 x 8 y = 3 5 x + 6

(10, 12)

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{ y = x 1 y = x + 7

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{ 4 x + 2 y = 8 8 x y = 1

( 1 2 , 3 )

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{ x 12 y = −1 2 x 8 y = −6

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{ 15 x + 2 y = 6 −5 x + 2 y = −4

( 1 2 , 3 4 )

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{ 2 x 15 y = 7 12 x + 2 y = −4

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{ y = 3 x 6 x 2 y = 0

Infinitely many solutions

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{ x = 2 y 4 x 8 y = 0

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{ 2 x + 16 y = 8 x 8 y = −4

Infinitely many solutions

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{ 15 x + 4 y = 6 −30 x 8 y = −12

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{ y = −4 x 4 x + y = 1

No solution

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{ y = 1 4 x x + 4 y = 8

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{ y = 7 8 x + 4 −7 x + 8 y = 6

No solution

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{ y = 2 3 x + 5 2 x + 3 y = 11

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Solve Applications of Systems of Equations by Substitution

In the following exercises, translate to a system of equations and solve.

The sum of two numbers is 15. One number is 3 less than the other. Find the numbers.

The numbers are 13 and 17.

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The sum of two numbers is 30. One number is 4 less than the other. Find the numbers.

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The sum of two numbers is −26. One number is 12 less than the other. Find the numbers.

The numbers are −7 and −19.

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The perimeter of a rectangle is 50. The length is 5 more than the width. Find the length and width.

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The perimeter of a rectangle is 60. The length is 10 more than the width. Find the length and width.

The length is 20 and the width is 10.

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The perimeter of a rectangle is 58. The length is 5 more than three times the width. Find the length and width.

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The perimeter of a rectangle is 84. The length is 10 more than three times the width. Find the length and width.

The length is 34 and the width is 8.

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The measure of one of the small angles of a right triangle is 14 more than 3 times the measure of the other small angle. Find the measure of both angles.

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The measure of one of the small angles of a right triangle is 26 more than 3 times the measure of the other small angle. Find the measure of both angles.

The measures are 16° and 74°.

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The measure of one of the small angles of a right triangle is 15 less than twice the measure of the other small angle. Find the measure of both angles.

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The measure of one of the small angles of a right triangle is 45 less than twice the measure of the other small angle. Find the measure of both angles.

The measures are 45° and 45°.

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Maxim has been offered positions by two car dealers. The first company pays a salary of $10,000 plus a commission of $1,000 for each car sold. The second pays a salary of $20,000 plus a commission of $500 for each car sold. How many cars would need to be sold to make the total pay the same?

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Jackie has been offered positions by two cable companies. The first company pays a salary of $ 14,000 plus a commission of $100 for each cable package sold. The second pays a salary of $20,000 plus a commission of $25 for each cable package sold. How many cable packages would need to be sold to make the total pay the same?

80 cable packages would need to be sold.

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Amara currently sells televisions for company A at a salary of $17,000 plus a $100 commission for each television she sells. Company B offers her a position with a salary of $29,000 plus a $20 commission for each television she sells. How televisions would Amara need to sell for the options to be equal?

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Mitchell currently sells stoves for company A at a salary of $12,000 plus a $150 commission for each stove he sells. Company B offers him a position with a salary of $24,000 plus a $50 commission for each stove he sells. How many stoves would Mitchell need to sell for the options to be equal?

Mitchell would need to sell 120 stoves.

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Everyday math

When Gloria spent 15 minutes on the elliptical trainer and then did circuit training for 30 minutes, her fitness app says she burned 435 calories. When she spent 30 minutes on the elliptical trainer and 40 minutes circuit training she burned 690 calories. Solve the system { 15 e + 30 c = 435 30 e + 40 c = 690 for e , the number of calories she burns for each minute on the elliptical trainer, and c , the number of calories she burns for each minute of circuit training.

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Stephanie left Riverside, California, driving her motorhome north on Interstate 15 towards Salt Lake City at a speed of 56 miles per hour. Half an hour later, Tina left Riverside in her car on the same route as Stephanie, driving 70 miles per hour. Solve the system { 56 s = 70 t s = t + 1 2 .

  1. for t to find out how long it will take Tina to catch up to Stephanie.
  2. what is the value of s , the number of hours Stephanie will have driven before Tina catches up to her?

t = 2 hours s = 2 1 2 hours

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Writing exercises

Solve the system of equations
{ x + y = 10 x y = 6

by graphing.
by substitution.
Which method do you prefer? Why?

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Solve the system of equations
{ 3 x + y = 12 x = y 8 by substitution and explain all your steps in words.

Answers will vary.

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Self check

After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

This figure shows a table with three rows and four columns. The columns are labeled, “I can…,” “Confidently.” “With some help.” and “No - I don’t get it.” The only column with filled in cells below it is labeled “I can…” It reads, “solve a system of equations by substitution.” “solve applications of systems of equations by substitution.”

After reviewing this checklist, what will you do to become confident for all objectives?

Questions & Answers

4x+7y=29,x+3y=11 substitute method of linear equation
Srinu Reply
substitute method of linear equation
Srinu
Solve one equation for one variable. Using the 2nd equation, x=11-3y. Substitute that for x in first equation. this will find y. then use the value for y to find the value for x.
bruce
I want to learn
Elizebeth
help
Elizebeth
I want to learn. Please teach me?
Wayne
1) Use any equation, and solve for any of the variables. Since the coefficient of x (the number in front of the x) in the second equation is 1 (it actually isn't shown, but 1 * x = x), use that equation. Subtract 3y from both sides (this isolates the x on the left side of the equal sign).
bruce
2) This results in x=11-3y. x is note in terms of y. Use that as the value of x and substitute for all x in the first equation. The first equation becomes 4(11-3y)+7y =29. Note that the only variable left in the first equation is the y. If you have multiple variable, then something is wrong.
bruce
3) Distribute (multiply) the 4 across 11-3y to get 44-12y. Add this to the 7y. So, the equation is now 44-5y=29.
bruce
4) Solve 44-5y=29 for y. Isolate the y by subtracting 44 from birth sides, resulting in -5y=-15. Now, divide birth sides by -5 (since you have -5y). This results in y=3. You now have the value of one variable.
bruce
5) The last step is to take the value of y from Step 4) and substitute into the 2nd equation. Therefore: x+3y=11 becomes x+3(3)=11. Then multiplying, x+9=11. Finally, solve for x by subtracting 9 from both sides. Therefore, x=2.
bruce
6) The ordered pair of (2, 3) is the proposed solution. To check, substitute those values into either equation. If the result is true, then the solution is correct. 4(2)+7(3)=8+21=29. TRUE! Finished.
bruce
At 1:30 Marlon left his house to go to the beach, a distance of 5.625 miles. He rose his skateboard until 2:15, and then walked the rest of the way. He arrived at the beach at 3:00. Marlon's speed on his skateboard is 1.5 times his walking speed. Find his speed when skateboarding and when walking.
Andrew Reply
divide 3x⁴-4x³-3x-1 by x-3
Ritik Reply
how to multiply the monomial
Ceny Reply
Two sisters like to compete on their bike rides. Tamara can go 4 mph faster than her sister, Samantha. If it takes Samantha 1 hours longer than Tamara to go 80 miles, how fast can Samantha ride her bike? Got questions? Get instant answers now!
Seera Reply
how do u solve that question
Seera
Two sisters like to compete on their bike rides. Tamara can go 4 mph faster than her sister, Samantha. If it takes Samantha 1 hours longer than Tamara to go 80 miles, how fast can Samantha ride her bike?
Seera
Speed=distance ÷ time
Tremayne
x-3y =1; 3x-2y+4=0 graph
Juned Reply
Brandon has a cup of quarters and dimes with a total of 5.55$. The number of quarters is five less than three times the number of dimes
ashley Reply
app is wrong how can 350 be divisible by 3.
Raheem Reply
June needs 48 gallons of punch for a party and has two different coolers to carry it in. The bigger cooler is five times as large as the smaller cooler. How many gallons can each cooler hold?
Susanna Reply
Susanna if the first cooler holds five times the gallons then the other cooler. The big cooler holda 40 gallons and the 2nd will hold 8 gallons is that correct?
Georgie
@Susanna that person is correct if you divide 40 by 8 you can see it's 5 it's simple
Ashley
@Geogie my bad that was meant for u
Ashley
Hi everyone, I'm glad to be connected with you all. from France.
Lorris Reply
I'm getting "math processing error" on math problems. Anyone know why?
Ray Reply
Can you all help me I don't get any of this
Jade Reply
4^×=9
Alberto Reply
Did anyone else have trouble getting in quiz link for linear inequalities?
Sireka Reply
operation of trinomial
Justin Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. Jan 18, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12116/1.2
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