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Given the toolkit function f ( x ) = x 2 , graph g ( x ) = f ( x ) and h ( x ) = f ( x ) . Take note of any surprising behavior for these functions.

Graph of x^2 and its reflections.

Notice: g ( x ) = f ( x ) looks the same as f ( x ) .

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Determining even and odd functions

Some functions exhibit symmetry so that reflections result in the original graph. For example, horizontally reflecting the toolkit functions f ( x ) = x 2 or f ( x ) = | x | will result in the original graph. We say that these types of graphs are symmetric about the y -axis. Functions whose graphs are symmetric about the y -axis are called even functions.

If the graphs of f ( x ) = x 3 or f ( x ) = 1 x were reflected over both axes, the result would be the original graph, as shown in [link] .

Graph of x^3 and its reflections.
(a) The cubic toolkit function (b) Horizontal reflection of the cubic toolkit function (c) Horizontal and vertical reflections reproduce the original cubic function.

We say that these graphs are symmetric about the origin. A function with a graph that is symmetric about the origin is called an odd function .

Note: A function can be neither even nor odd if it does not exhibit either symmetry. For example, f ( x ) = 2 x is neither even nor odd. Also, the only function that is both even and odd is the constant function f ( x ) = 0.

Even and odd functions

A function is called an even function    if for every input x

f ( x ) = f ( x )

The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y - axis.

A function is called an odd function    if for every input x

f ( x ) = f ( x )

The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin.

Given the formula for a function, determine if the function is even, odd, or neither.

  1. Determine whether the function satisfies f ( x ) = f ( x ) . If it does, it is even.
  2. Determine whether the function satisfies f ( x ) = f ( x ) . If it does, it is odd.
  3. If the function does not satisfy either rule, it is neither even nor odd.

Determining whether a function is even, odd, or neither

Is the function f ( x ) = x 3 + 2 x even, odd, or neither?

Without looking at a graph, we can determine whether the function is even or odd by finding formulas for the reflections and determining if they return us to the original function. Let’s begin with the rule for even functions.

f ( x ) = ( x ) 3 + 2 ( x ) = x 3 2 x

This does not return us to the original function, so this function is not even. We can now test the rule for odd functions.

f ( x ) = ( x 3 2 x ) = x 3 + 2 x

Because f ( x ) = f ( x ) , this is an odd function.

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Is the function f ( s ) = s 4 + 3 s 2 + 7 even, odd, or neither?

even

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Graphing functions using stretches and compressions

Adding a constant to the inputs or outputs of a function changed the position of a graph with respect to the axes, but it did not affect the shape of a graph. We now explore the effects of multiplying the inputs or outputs by some quantity.

We can transform the inside (input values) of a function or we can transform the outside (output values) of a function. Each change has a specific effect that can be seen graphically.

Vertical stretches and compressions

When we multiply a function by a positive constant, we get a function whose graph is stretched or compressed vertically in relation to the graph of the original function. If the constant is greater than 1, we get a vertical stretch ; if the constant is between 0 and 1, we get a vertical compression . [link] shows a function multiplied by constant factors 2 and 0.5 and the resulting vertical stretch and compression.

Questions & Answers

For each year t, the population of a forest of trees is represented by the function A(t) = 117(1.029)t. In a neighboring forest, the population of the same type of tree is represented by the function B(t) = 86(1.025)t.
Shakeena Reply
by how many trees did forest "A" have a greater number?
Shakeena
32.243
Kenard
how solve standard form of polar
Rhudy Reply
what is a complex number used for?
Drew Reply
It's just like any other number. The important thing to know is that they exist and can be used in computations like any number.
Steve
I would like to add that they are used in AC signal analysis for one thing
Scott
Good call Scott. Also radar signals I believe.
Steve
Is there any rule we can use to get the nth term ?
Anwar Reply
how do you get the (1.4427)^t in the carp problem?
Gabrielle Reply
A hedge is contrusted to be in the shape of hyperbola near a fountain at the center of yard.the hedge will follow the asymptotes y=x and y=-x and closest distance near the distance to the centre fountain at 5 yards find the eqution of the hyperbola
ayesha Reply
A doctor prescribes 125 milligrams of a therapeutic drug that decays by about 30% each hour. To the nearest hour, what is the half-life of the drug?
Sandra Reply
Find the domain of the function in interval or inequality notation f(x)=4-9x+3x^2
prince Reply
hello
Jessica Reply
Outside temperatures over the course of a day can be modeled as a sinusoidal function. Suppose the high temperature of ?105°F??105°F? occurs at 5PM and the average temperature for the day is ?85°F.??85°F.? Find the temperature, to the nearest degree, at 9AM.
Karlee Reply
if you have the amplitude and the period and the phase shift ho would you know where to start and where to end?
Jean Reply
rotation by 80 of (x^2/9)-(y^2/16)=1
Garrett Reply
thanks the domain is good but a i would like to get some other examples of how to find the range of a function
bashiir Reply
what is the standard form if the focus is at (0,2) ?
Lorejean Reply
a²=4
Roy Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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